Education

Project 2025 mind map of entities

Project 2025, led by former Trump official Paul Dans and key conservative figures within The Heritage Foundation, sets forth an ambitious conservative and Christian nationalist vision aimed at fundamentally transforming the role of the federal government. Leonard Leo, a prominent conservative known for his influence on the U.S. Supreme Court‘s composition, is among the project’s leading fundraisers.

The initiative seeks to undo over a century of progressive reforms, tracing back to the establishment of a federal administrative framework by Woodrow Wilson, through the New Deal by Roosevelt, to Johnson’s Great Society. It proposes a significant reduction in the federal workforce, which stands at about 2.25 million people.

Project 2025 plans

Essential measures include reducing funding for, or even abolishing, key agencies such as the Department of Justice, the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Departments of Education and Commerce. Additionally, Project 2025 intends to bring semi-independent agencies like the Federal Communications Commission under closer presidential control.

At its heart, Project 2025 aims to secure a durable conservative dominance within the federal government, aligning it closely with the principles of the MAGA movement and ensuring it operates under the direct oversight of the White House. The project is inspired by the “unitary executive theory” of the Constitution, which argues for sweeping presidential authority over the federal administrative apparatus — in direct contradiction with the delicate system of checks and balances architected by the Founders.

It is also inspired by religious fervor (and the cynical exploitation thereof) — and Project 2025 has brought together a pantheon of Christian nationalist organizations and groups to draft policy that could be implemented with alacrity, select potential appointees for the administration, build networks with GOP at the state and local levels — and with right-wing networks around the world.

Project 2025 goals

To realize their extremist, authoritarian goal, Dans is actively recruiting what he terms “conservative warriors” from legal and government networks, including bar associations and offices of state attorneys general. The aim is to embed these individuals in key legal roles throughout the government, thereby embedding the conservative vision deeply within the federal bureaucracy to shape policy and governance for the foreseeable future.

Continue reading What is Project 2025: The GOP’s plan for taking power
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banned books burning books

Expecting this banned books list will be ongoing, unfortunately…

Book bans represent a significant threat to the First Amendment by restricting access to diverse ideas and viewpoints, which are essential to a free and democratic society. These bans often target literature that addresses complex and sometimes controversial themes such as race, sexuality, and political ideologies, under the guise of protecting young readers.

However, this form of censorship undermines intellectual freedom and the right to read, leading to a homogenized culture that stifles critical thinking and open dialogue. The American Library Association (ALA) and PEN America have documented thousands of instances where books have been removed from school and public libraries, reflecting a concerted effort by certain groups to impose their moral or political standards on the wider community, thus eroding the foundational principles of free expression enshrined in the First Amendment​.

Most Banned Books (2023-2024)

  1. “Gender Queer” by Maia Kobabe
  2. “All Boys Aren’t Blue” by George M. Johnson
  3. “The Bluest Eye” by Toni Morrison
  4. “Out of Darkness” by Ashley Hope Pérez
  5. “The Hate U Give” by Angie Thomas
  6. “Beyond Magenta” by Susan Kuklin
  7. “The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian” by Sherman Alexie
  8. “Melissa” (previously published as “George”) by Alex Gino
  9. “Stamped: Racism, Antiracism, and You” by Jason Reynolds and Ibram X. Kendi
  10. “Drama” by Raina Telgemeier
Continue reading Banned Books List: What the right-wing considers dangerous literature
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Critical thinking is a disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. It involves questioning ideas and assumptions rather than accepting them at face value.

It requires curiosity, skepticism, and humility to acknowledge the limitations of one’s knowledge and understanding. Critical thinking enables individuals to make reasoned judgments that are logical and well-thought-out. It is a foundational skill for problem solving and decision making in a wide range of contexts, and it empowers individuals to act more wisely and responsibly in their personal, professional, and civic lives.

Think Better with Mental Models

Mental models are a key component of critical thinking. They are a kind of strategic building blocks we can use to make sense of the world around us.

Some are formal mathematical proofs, some are scientific theories, and along the other end of the continuum are models more akin to metaphors or ancient wisdoms that still hold true today — they’ve been time tested and still hold explanatory value in helping us understand new (and new to us) phenomena.

Models are often extensible, and can apply to other systems in addition to their systems of origin. In fact, the most powerful models seem to show up again and again, across different disciplines and in a wide variety of contexts. They’re a bit like a mental image of how something works, that helps us predict what will happen next or explain how something works to others.

Also, multiple models can often be applied to the same systems — in order to describe different parts of that system, or account for different contexts, use cases, or configurations of the same process. Mental models aren’t like multiple-choice tests, where only one answer is correct — typically, a set of different models may have value in giving us a sense of how something works or how an ecosystem behaves.

See here for the set of Top Models to start with.

Then, follow up with the unabridged and upcoming collection I will continuously update and curate over time:

  • 4GW — 4th Generation Warfare
  • Absolute value — The distance of a number from zero on the number line, without considering the direction; it is always a non-negative number.
  • Action bias — The tendency to prefer action over inaction, often driven by the emotional discomfort of feeling unproductive or the desire to appear decisive.
  • Adjustment heuristic — A cognitive shortcut where people estimate a value based on an initial starting point (anchor) and then make adjustments from that point to reach their final estimate, often leading to systematic biases in judgment.
  • Agency capitalism — Alfred Rappaport’s agency capitalism theory, as outlined in “Creating Shareholder Value,” addresses the conflict between corporate managers (agents) and shareholders (principals) by advocating for the alignment of managerial incentives with shareholder interests. Rappaport emphasizes that the primary goal of a corporation should be to maximize shareholder value through strategic planning, effective capital allocation, and performance metrics like economic value added (EVA) rather than traditional accounting measures. By promoting strong corporate governance, transparent communication, and incentive-based compensation, Rappaport’s theory aims to mitigate the agency problem and ensure long-term value creation for shareholders.
  • Agile vs. Waterfall — 2 distinct methodologies or philosophies of project and product management: agile is more iterative and collaborative, while waterfall is more sequential and linear in nature.
  • Alchemy — The medieval progenitor of the science of chemistry, based on the misguided ambition of transforming matter — often specifically the transmuting of base metals into gold.
  • Ambiguity aversion — A preference for known risks over unknown risks.
  • Analysis paralysis — The inability to make a decision because of over-thinking a problem, and becoming paralized by too much data and/or too many options to consider.
  • Anarcho-capitalism — A political philosophy that claims governments are not needed, only private property rights.
  • Anchoring effect — A cognitive bias where individuals rely too heavily on an initial piece of information (the “anchor”) when making decisions, even if it’s unrelated to the decision at hand.
  • Anecdotal vs. statistical — Anecdotal evidence refers to personal stories or isolated examples that people often use to illustrate or support a point, whereas statistical evidence involves data and analysis from systematic research or studies, providing a broader, more generalizable understanding of a topic.
  • Anocracy — A hybrid form of government blending democracy and dictatorship, in which some public participation is available, but not a full set of mechanisms for addressing civic grievances.
  • Antifragility — Systems that benefit from fragility; achieves growth from volatility (Nassim Taleb).
  • Arete — Excellence in moral virtue (ancient Greece).
  • Arrow of time — The concept that time seems to flow in a single direction from the past to the future, characterized by the growth of entropy and the irreversible progression of physical processes.
  • Arrow’s Theorem — Social-choice paradox showing the flaws of ranked voting systems.
  • Arrested development — A stoppage of physical or psychological development, leading to an individual’s failure to achieve the milestones typically associated with a certain life stage, often due to psychological or environmental factors.
  • Asch Experiments — Set of experiments showing that people can be social pressured into conforming a lot more easily and often than we might imagine.
  • Askers vs. Guessers — Cultural metaphor sorting people into two buckets: Askers will simply ask for anything they like, expecting that sometimes the answer will be “No.” Guessers will rarely ask for something if they feel the answer might be No, and dislike being put in the position of saying No to an Asker.
  • Asymptote — A curve that approaches the value of a line on a graph but never reaches it.
  • Attention restoration theory — nature replenishes our ability to concentrate and pay attention
  • Austrian School economics — A school of economic thought that emphasizes the spontaneous organizing power of the price mechanism and holds that the complexity of subjective human choices makes mathematical modeling of the evolving market practically impossible.
  • Authoritarian personality — A psychological concept describing individuals who exhibit a strong adherence to conformity, authority, and rigid structure, often leading to prejudice and an intolerance for ambiguity.
  • Availability heuristic — A mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a person’s mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method, or decision, leading to a biased judgment based on recent information or personal experience.
  • Avogadro’s Number — 6.022 X 10^23, the number of atoms or molecules in a mole, the base unit of measurement for an equivalent amount of a substance
  • Banality of evil — The concept of the “banality of evil,” coined by philosopher Hannah Arendt, describes the phenomenon where ordinary individuals commit heinous acts without evil intent, often through a lack of critical thinking and a blind adherence to orders or norms. This idea emerged from Arendt’s observations during the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi bureaucrat who facilitated the Holocaust by following orders and bureaucratic processes without question.
  • Banana republic — A banana republic is a politically unstable country with an economy dependent on the export of a single resource, often controlled by foreign corporations. This term typically implies corruption, exploitation, and a lack of democratic governance.
  • Bandwagon effect
  • Basic GoodnessShambhala Buddhist concept of basic human worthiness in people of all faiths, colors, and varieties
  • Bayes’ Theorem — Bayes’ Theorem is a fundamental concept in probability theory that allows you to update the probability of a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.
  • Begging the question
  • Bellwether — Metaphor taken from the practice of using a castrated sheep (a “wether”) outfitted with a bell, that indicates in which direction the herd is going to be travelling
  • Bias
  • Big Rocks First
  • Bikeshedding — a tendency to devote a disproportionate amount of available time to the more trivial and inconsequential matters, while giving short shrift to the most important topics or activities (aka Parkinson’s law of triviality)
  • Bin stacking problem
  • Black and white thinking — Black and white thinking, also known as dichotomous or polarized thinking, is a cognitive distortion where people perceive situations, events, or people in extremes, such as all good or all bad, without recognizing the complexities and nuances in between. This type of thinking can lead to rigid and overly simplistic views, often resulting in emotional distress and conflict in personal and professional relationships.
  • Black swan theory
  • Blind spot
  • Blockchain
  • Body mass index
  • Boiling frog syndrome
  • Bounded rationality
  • Brainwashing
  • Bricolage — the creation of art or other creative work from a diverse range of materials and/or influences
  • Broken windows theory
  • Burden of proof
  • Busy work
  • Butterfly effect
  • Bystander effect
  • Calvinism — Christian sect known for their fastidious work habits
  • Campbell’s Law — The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures, and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it’s intended to monitor. (see also: Goodhart’s Law)
  • Casino capitalism — Casino capitalism refers to an economic system where high-risk financial activities, such as speculative investments and trading, dominate over productive investments in goods and services. This term critiques how financial markets operate like casinos, prioritizing short-term gains and speculative profits over long-term economic stability and growth.
  • Catalyst
  • Categorical imperative — Immanuel Kant’s moral philosophy, stating that one should behave only in ways they would want to be universal (see also: Golden Rule; ideal universal principle)
  • Cathexis — allocating one’s mental or emotional energy to a person, idea, or object, perhaps to an unhealthy degree psychologically
  • Causa-sui project
  • Causation
  • Central Limit Theorem — mathematical proof showing that any large enough sample size of a population will exhibit a Normal Distribution Curve for any independently-measured traits
  • Central tendency
  • Ceteris paribus
  • Chaos Theory
  • Chekhov’s Gun — Literary principle stating that the details of a story should have purpose, and extraneous details omitted
  • Chesterton’s Fence
  • Clustering illusion
  • CocoonShambhala Buddhist conceptualization of a sort of psychic armor we wear that cuts us off from others in the name of self-protection. The discipline advises one to shed that armor.
  • Cognitive extension — Cognitive extension refers to the idea that human cognitive processes can extend beyond the brain to include external tools and environments, such as technology and written language, which enhance and support our mental capabilities. This concept suggests that our minds are not confined within our heads but are instead part of a broader system involving interaction with our surroundings.
  • Collective action
  • Collective effervescence — sociological concept of Émile Durkheim to describe when a community or society comes together and bonds over the same thought, theme, message, or action
  • Collective hysteria
  • Collective narcissism
  • Command responsibility — Command responsibility is a legal doctrine in military and international law that holds superiors accountable for crimes committed by their subordinates when they knew or should have known about the actions and failed to prevent or punish them. This principle aims to ensure accountability within the hierarchy of command and is crucial in prosecuting war crimes and crimes against humanity.
  • Compound interest
  • Condorcet Jury Theorem — mathematical proof showing that if each person on the jury gets it right more than 50% of the time, as #s get larger the jury as a whole approaches 100% justice
  • Confidence game
  • Confirmation bias — Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, and remember information in a way that confirms one’s pre-existing beliefs or opinions. This cognitive bias leads individuals to favor information that supports their views while disregarding or undervaluing evidence that contradicts them.
  • Conservation of energy
  • Conservation of mass
  • Conservation of momentum
  • Conspiracy theory
  • Contagion heuristic
  • Correlation
  • Corruption
  • Counterfactual thinking
  • Countervailing power
  • Creative destruction
  • Critical mass
  • Critical Race Theory
  • Crossing symmetry — in particle physics, the fact that any particle interaction observed can be anticipated to be replicable with that particle’s antiparticle
  • Crowdfunding
  • Crowd psychology
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Cult of personality
  • Current moment bias
  • Dead hand of the past
  • Decision tree
  • Democratic socialism
  • Denial / denialism
  • Deontology — philosophy of duty and obligation
  • Derivatives
  • Despotism
  • Determinism — things unfold due to cause and effect
  • Devil you know
  • Dichotomy of control — Stoic idea that we should divide the world into things under our control (intentions, efforts) vs. things not in our control (external rewards), and hew to the former vs. the latter for our self-esteem and happiness.
  • Diminishing Marginal Utility (DMU) — Diminishing Marginal Utility is an economic principle stating that as a person consumes additional units of a good or service, the satisfaction (utility) gained from each additional unit decreases. In other words, the first unit of consumption provides more utility than the second, and the second more than the third, and so on.
  • Discounting positives
  • Disjunction fallacy
  • Distributions
  • Diversity
  • Domain dependence
  • Doublethink
  • Drake Equation — The Drake Equation is a probabilistic formula used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy. It considers factors such as the rate of star formation, the fraction of those stars with planetary systems, the number of planets that could support life, and the likelihood of life evolving into intelligent beings capable of communication.
  • Dr. Fox Effect — The Dr. Fox effect refers to a phenomenon where an engaging and expressive presenter can make a lecture appear informative and satisfying, even if the content is nonsensical or lacking in substance. This effect highlights the power of delivery and presentation skills in shaping perceptions of credibility and knowledge.
  • Dunbar Number
  • Dunning-Kruger Effect
  • Duverger’s Law
  • Easterlin Paradox — named for Richard Easterlin, who observed that rising material prosperity in countries doesn’t necessarily lead to greater levels of reported well-being
  • Echo chamber
  • Edge of chaos — at the border between order and disorder; a frontier of transition space
  • Efficiency
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Electron cloud
  • Elephant and rider
  • Ellsberg paradox
  • Elsewhere Disease — being convinced that the Real Story is not Here: Here is too boring by far. It’s small and provincial and known already (or so we believe). Excitement is for somewhere far away and exotic.
  • Emotional abuse
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Emotional labor — Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild introduced the concept of emotional labor in her seminal book “The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling” (1983). Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers manage their emotions to fulfill the emotional requirements of their job. This concept has had a profound impact on understanding the roles and challenges faced by workers in service-oriented industries.
  • Emotional reasoning
  • Emperor’s new clothes
  • End Times
  • Entropy
  • Epistemic warfare
  • E pluribus unum — one out of many, a Latin phrase used on the United States dollar to represent the founding ideals of Thomas Jefferson, that all men are created equal
  • Equality under law
  • Equilibrium
  • Equity
  • Estate tax
  • Eternal Rome
  • Ethics — in Greek, “fruits of the garden” (Ethikos = character) & Morales = habits in Roman
  • Eucatastrophe — a catastrophic event that suddenly changes from bad to good
  • Event horizon — the edge of a black hole
  • Exception handling — solving edge case problems and other unexpected, novel issues within organizations and projects
  • Expected value
  • Extrapolation
  • Extremism
  • Fact-Value Problem — Arose from philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) and the is-ought problem in moral philosophy. It refers to the challenge of distinguishing between descriptive statements (what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (what ought to be) in philosophical discourse. It highlights the difficulty in deriving ethical or moral conclusions directly from factual premises. (see also: naturalistic fallacy, moralistic fallacy)
  • False cause
  • False consensus effect
  • False flag
  • Fear of Death
  • Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance
  • Fiat currency
  • Fiduciary duty
  • Fifth column
  • Filibuster
  • First fit algorithm
  • Focusing illusion
  • Force multiplier — tools to help amplify the amount of work you’re able to do
  • Fortune-telling
  • Fractals
  • Free markets
  • Framing effects
  • Fredkin’s paradox
  • Free will
  • Friendship paradox
  • FUD
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
  • Gambler’s fallacy
  • Game theory
  • Gaslighting
  • GDP
  • Geronticide — Geronticide is the intentional act of killing elderly people, often motivated by societal or economic pressures to reduce the perceived burden of an aging population. This term can also refer to the neglect or harmful policies that lead to premature deaths among the elderly.
  • Golden Mean
  • Golden Rule
  • Goldilocks Zone
  • Gold standard
  • Goodheart’s Law — Any measure used for control is unreliable. i.e. anything that can be measured and rewarded will be gamed. (see also: Campbell’s Law)
  • Gravitational waves
  • Gravity
  • Great Man Theory
  • Great Replacement Theory
  • Groundhog Day — running into the same patterns again and again; a reference to the 1993 Bill Murray film
  • Groupthink
  • Habeas corpus — legal protection from unlawful imprisonment and indefinite detention without cause
  • Halo effect
  • Hanlon’s Razor
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
  • Herd behavior
  • Heuristics
  • Hierarchy vs. Fairness
  • Higgs boson — subatomic particle that theoretically gives mass to things
  • Hitting rock bottom — the lowest you can be
  • Hofstadter’s Law
  • Horseshoe Theory
  • Hostile Media Theory — Ross & Lepper
  • How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?
  • Hydra
  • Iatrogenics — Nassim Taleb
  • Id, ego, superego — Freud
  • Identifiable Victim Effect
  • Illusory correlation
  • Imposter Syndrome
  • Inequality
  • Inflation
  • Ingroup bias
  • Integrative complexity — Integrative complexity is a psychological construct that measures the extent to which an individual or group recognizes multiple perspectives and can integrate these viewpoints into a coherent and nuanced understanding. It reflects the capacity for flexible thinking and problem-solving, often involving the ability to reconcile conflicting information and consider the broader context.
  • Interest rate
  • Internet of Things
  • Interposition
  • Interventionism
  • Iron law of oligarchy
  • Jevons paradox
  • Just-world hypothesis
  • Kakistocracy
  • Karpman Drama Triangle — rescuer, persecutor, victim
  • Ketman
  • Keynesian economics FDR‘s The New Deal; LBJ’s Great Society; Bidenenomics
  • Kleptocracy
  • Kompromat
  • KPIs — Key Performance Indicators: metrics and measurements that provide feedback on how well a business is doing at meeting its objectives.
  • Kronos Effect
  • Laffer Curve
  • Last-place aversion — phenomenon where people near the bottom of an income distribution are strong advocates against redistribution of wealth — because they are worried it will help out the people on the rung beneath them and make them relatively worse off.
  • Law of large numbers
  • Law of triviality
  • Least-barricaded gate
  • Lecturing birds how to fly — Nassim Taleb
  • Lemmings
  • Letter of the law (vs. spirit of the law)
  • Leverage
  • Lifeboat ethics
  • Loaded question
  • Local min — Similar to “hitting rock bottom,” a local min is the lowest part of the curve before things start to tick back up again.
  • Logical fallacies
  • Lone Wolf mythology
  • Long Tail
  • Longtermism
  • Loss aversion
  • Lost Cause
  • Lost Einsteins
  • Ludic fallacy
  • Mafia State — Coined by Hungarian sociologist Balint Magyar, a mafia state is a government system where officials, including those in high-ranking positions, engage in criminal activities and form alliances with organized crime networks to consolidate power and wealth. In such states, corruption and illicit practices are normalized, undermining the rule of law and democratic institutions.
  • Magical Thinking
  • Magic helper — Erich Fromm
  • Magnification
  • Malignant narcissism
  • Man on horseback — A synonym for a demagogue, from French general Georges Ernest Boulanger. A military leader who presents himself as the savior of the country during a period of crisis and either assumes or threatens to assume dictatorial powers.
  • Map is not the territory — “The map is not the territory” is a concept indicating that representations of reality, such as maps, models, or descriptions, are not equivalent to reality itself. It underscores the idea that our interpretations and symbols cannot fully encapsulate the complexities and nuances of the actual world.
  • Margin of error
  • Marginal benefit
  • Marginal utility
  • Market-based Management
  • Market share
  • Markov chain
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Mean — a statistical measure of central tendency
  • Median
  • Median Voter Theorem
  • Metabolic cost of cognition — Lisa Feldman Barrett
  • Middle ground
  • Middle Path
  • Millenarianism
  • Millennialism
  • Mens rea
  • Mercantilism
  • Meritocracy
  • Milgram Experiments
  • Mind metaphors
  • Mind reading
  • Minimizing
  • Mirror imaging
  • Mobbing Syndrome — Heinz Leymann used it in 1990 to describe a “deadly industrial disease” lurking in hierarchy and competitive occupations
  • Mole — A standard unit of measurement that defines the equivalent amount of substance: comprised of 6.022 X 10^23 elementary atoms or molecules, also known as Avogadro’s number.
  • Money manager capitalism — Hyman Minsky’s theory of Money Manager Capitalism describes the evolution of the financial system where institutional investors like mutual funds, pension funds, and hedge funds dominate, driving a shift towards market-based finance with increased leverage and complex financial instruments. This stage, emerging post-1980s, is characterized by a focus on short-term returns, heightened financial innovation, and the transfer of risks off traditional bank balance sheets, resulting in greater financial fragility and susceptibility to crises, as exemplified by the 2008 financial meltdown.
  • Monopoly
  • Monopsony
  • Moore’s Law — Moore’s Law, coined by Gordon Moore in 1965, states that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles approximately every two years, resulting in a corresponding increase in computing power and efficiency. This observation has driven exponential growth in technology, influencing advancements in electronics, computing, and various digital industries.
  • Moral hazard
  • Moral panic
  • Motivated reasoning
  • Naive cynicism
  • Naive realism
  • Narcissism
  • Narcissism of small differences — Freud
  • Nash Equilibrium
  • Nasty, brutish, and short
  • Natural law
  • Near enemy — In Buddhism, the concept of the near enemy describes a pitfall or metaphorical adversary that is not as obvious as the more obvious, “far” enemy. The Near Enemy appears more innocuous and presents itself as a positive as opposed to a negative.
  • Negative externalities
  • Negativity bias
  • Neurosis
  • Newspeak
  • Night Watchman State — The Night Watchman State, also known as the minimal state, advocates for a government with limited responsibilities, focusing on protecting citizens from violence, theft, and fraud, and minimizing intervention in the economy and society. Critics argue that such minimalism fails to support vulnerable populations and adequately regulate markets, protect the environment, or ensure social justice, emphasizing the need for a more complex government to address modern societal challenges.
  • Nominal realism
  • Nonlinearity
  • Non-zero sum game
  • Normal distribution
  • No True Scotsman fallacy
  • Observational selection bias
  • Occam’s Razor — The simplest explanation is often correct
  • Ochlocracy — mob rule
  • OKRs — Objectives and Key Results, a business term referring to a set of company goals the business or a business division is striving to achieve
  • Oligarchy
  • Omission bias
  • Ontology recapitulates phylogeny
  • Operant conditioning — Pairing a stimulus with a negative sentiment over and over again
  • Opportunity cost
  • Optimism bias
  • Options
  • Orders of magnitude
  • Orienting response — paying special attention to what enters our field of vision
  • Originalism
  • Outgroup bias
  • Outlier
  • Overgeneralizing
  • Oversight
  • Overton Window — The Overton Window refers to the range of policies or ideas that are considered politically acceptable or mainstream at a given time. It shifts over time as public opinion and political discourse evolve, influencing what policymakers and the public deem feasible or acceptable.
  • Paradox — a self-contradicting statement or event
  • Paralipsis — Paralipsis is a rhetorical device where a speaker or writer emphasizes something by pretending to pass over it, thus drawing attention to it indirectly. It often involves stating that a topic will not be mentioned while actually highlighting its importance.
  • Paranoia
  • Paranoid Style — The paranoid style in American politics refers to a way of thinking and discourse characterized by exaggerated fear, suspicion, and conspiracy theories, often perceiving vast, insidious, and unseen forces working against society. This style, as described by historian Richard Hofstadter, frequently appears during times of social stress and is marked by a sense of urgency and moral righteousness.
  • Pareto Principle
  • Parkinson’s Law of Triviality — see bikeshedding
  • Parrondo’s Paradox
  • Path dependent
  • Pathocracy
  • Patriarchy — The divine right of kings; authority via claimed received wisdom — and the accident of biological sex
  • Pearls before swine
  • Peer pressure
  • Perfect is the enemy of good
  • Personal incredulity
  • Peter Principle
  • Philosopher’s Stone
  • Plan continuation bias — aka the “get-there-itis” phenomenon in airplane pilot terminology
  • Planning fallacy
  • Plate tectonics
  • Platonic forms
  • Plato’s Cave
  • Pluralistic ignorance
  • Plutocracy
  • Polyanna Principle
  • Polygenesis — pseudoscientific human origin story used to justify slavery
  • Populism — a type of political movement
  • Positive expectation bias
  • Post-purchase rationalization
  • Potemkin Village Effect
  • Power
  • “Preening self” — Tim Wu’s concept of the universal urge to “capture the attention of others with the spectacle of one’s self”
  • Presentation of Self — Sociologist Erving Goffman’s most famous work, which introduced the concept of “dramaturgy” to sociology. He used the metaphor of theater to describe how individuals present themselves in everyday life, suggesting that people are like actors on a stage, performing roles for an audience.
  • Primogeniture — laws in the early US defining that by default, assets will pass to the first-born male
  • Prisoner’s Dilemma
  • Private mental property — Pol Pot’s concept for the most intimate inner thoughts and feelings of his people, that he was dedicated to removing completely from them.
  • Probability
  • Procrustean bed
  • Projection
  • Prolefeed
  • Proletariat
  • Propaganda
  • Proportionality
  • Prospect theory
  • Proteanism
  • Provincialism
  • Proximate cause
  • Proxy war
  • Psychopath
  • Psychosis
  • PTSD — Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Public choice theory
  • Pyrrhic victory — a hollow victory which destroys the victor as much as it does the vanquished; a victory that comes at extremely high cost
  • Quantum theory
  • Quid pro quo — Latin phrase: something in exchange for something else
  • Range
  • Rational ignorance
  • Reality testing
  • Received wisdom — divine revelation, claimed authority from the gods, and other mechanisms of establishing power from an unprovable (and undisprovable) premise falling outside of logic and rational deliberation
  • Reciprocity
  • Recursion
  • Red-baiting
  • Redundancy
  • Relativity
  • Remarketization — Remarketization refers to the process of reinstating or expanding market mechanisms and principles within an economy or sector that had previously been regulated or managed by the state or other non-market entities. This often involves privatization, deregulation, and the promotion of competition to enhance efficiency and innovation. The policy became prominent during the Reagan/Thatcher years.
  • Representativeness
  • Repression
  • Resemblance bias
  • Resilience
  • Risk
  • Risk aversion
  • ROI — Return on Investment, i.e. how much you earn from an investment or business expenditure vs. what you put in or spent
  • Rule of Law
  • Sadism — the tendency to derive pleasure — often of a sexual nature — from inflicting pain or suffering on other people
  • Sado-masochistic strivings — Erich Fromm concept
  • Sadopopulism
  • Sampling
  • Samsara — a Sanskrit word meaning “world,” that also references the Buddhist concept of rebirth and the endless cyclicality of all life and matter in the universe
  • Satisficing — Satisficing is a decision-making strategy that aims for a satisfactory or adequate result rather than the optimal solution, often due to time constraints or limited information. This approach involves evaluating alternatives until an acceptable threshold is met, rather than exhaustively searching for the best possible outcome.
  • Sayre’s Law — Sayre’s Law states that “In any dispute, the intensity of feeling is inversely proportional to the value of the issues at stake.” This means that the smaller or more trivial the matter, the more passionate and bitter the arguments tend to be.
  • Scapegoat
  • Second-order thinking
  • Secularism
  • Selective exposure — Selective exposure is the tendency of individuals to prefer information that supports their preexisting views while avoiding contradictory information. This behavior reinforces existing beliefs and biases, often leading to polarized opinions and a lack of balanced understanding.
  • Selectorate theory
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Self-serving bias
  • Senicide
  • Shifting baseline syndrome
  • Sic semper tyrannis — thus always to tyrants (John Wilkes Booth; Timothy McVeigh)
  • Signal path
  • Simpson’s Paradox
  • Singularity
  • Skin in the game
  • Slippery slope
  • Smear campaign
  • Snackwell effect
  • Social contract
  • social-desirability bias — A type of response bias in which survey respondents tend to answer questions in ways that will viewed more favorably by others
  • Social dominance
  • Socialism
  • Sociopath
  • Socratic method
  • Spatial Segregation Model — Thomas Schelling (1969)
  • Special pleading
  • Spectra
  • Spiral of silence
  • Spirit of the law (vs. letter of the law)
  • SPoF (Single Point of Failure)
  • Standard deviation
  • State of the World — full description of all relevant information
  • Status quo
  • Stereotypes
  • Stonewalling
  • Strawman
  • Strongman
  • Streisand Effect
  • String Theory
  • Sundown towns
  • Sunk cost
  • Superorganism
  • Supremacy
  • Symbiosis — psychological concept from Erich Fromm on what fascist followers get out of their relationship with the Strongman
  • Sycophant — one who flatters the ruler, no matter how awful their ideas
  • Tangent
  • Tariffs
  • Teleological fallacy
  • Terminal velocity model
  • Texas sharpshooter
  • Third Story
  • Tightly coupled — when a system is unforgiving, or has little buffer between its components
  • Tilting at windmills
  • Time to completion
  • Tipping point
  • Toxic masculinity
  • Toxic positivity
  • Tragedy of the commons
  • Trauma bonding
  • Treadmill effect
  • Triangulation
  • Trickle-down economics
  • Trolley problem
  • Tu quoque
  • Turtles all the way down
  • Tyranny
  • Tyranny of choice
  • Tyranny of small decisions
  • UBI — Universal Basic Income
  • Umgebung — in contrast to the provincial, proprietary umwelt, the umgebung is the actual world, that exists beyond our mere perception of the world
  • Umwelt — the small subset of the world we can detect or perceive, in contrast with umgebung which is the “bigger” reality
  • Uncertainty
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Veil of Ignorance — John Rawls
  • Venn diagram
  • Vertical axis of morality
  • Violent othering — When members of racial, ethnic, religious, or other types of groups are targeted for political violence for spurious reasons
  • Wadler’s Law
  • Wave function
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Whac-a-mole — solving one problem only to have a new one pop up elsewhere, a reference to a Japanese video game from the 1970s that became popular in America as well
  • Whataboutism
  • White Jesus
  • White supremacy
  • Wisdom of the crowds
  • Wolves and sheep
  • Worst case scenario
  • Zero-risk bias
  • Zero sum game
Read more

The term Christian nationalists brings together a number of radical religious sects seeking to overthrow the democratic republic of the United States and installing a strict theocracy, from dominionists to orthodox Catholics to Evangelicals and many more. Christian nationalist organizations work to increase the influence of religion on politics, under the invented mythology that the largely Deist founders meant to establish a Christian state.

They tend to believe in Strict Father Morality, and Christian nationalist leaders desire to establish some sort of Christian fascist theocratic state in America. Nevermind that religious freedom and the ability to worship as one pleases was precisely one of the major founding ideals of the United States, as we know from the many, many outside writings of the founders at that time — these folks consider that context “irrelevant” to the literal text of the founding documents.

Getting “separation of state” backwards

Prominent Christian nationalist David Barton re-interprets the famous 1802 Thomas Jefferson letter to the Danbury Baptists to allege support for a “one-way wall” between church and state. Barton contends that Jefferson’s metaphor of a “wall of separation” was intended to protect religious institutions from government interference rather than ensuring the government’s secular nature. By advocating for this one-directional barrier, Barton seeks to justify the integration of religious principles into public policy and government actions — improbably, given the First Amendment to the Constitution.

Barton and his fellow Christian nationalists are either intentionally or unfathomably not taking the logical next step in the chain of power and authority: if the government is informed, infused, or even consumed by religious dogma and doctrine, then is that government not by definition infringing on the rights of any citizens that happens not to believe in that code or creed?

The answer, as we well know from the colonization of America itself, is YES. We left the Church of England in large part to worship of our own accord — and to make money, of course. Madison, Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, and Washington were especially concerned about religious liberty and the neutrality of government in religious matters.

Thus, in large part, the ideas of the Christian nationalists are misinterpretations at best, and willful invention at worst. In some it is clearly a naked power grab and not much more — think of Trump holding an upside-down Bible in Lafayette Square. In general, Christian nationalism doesn’t actually seem very Christian at all.

Whether they are True Believers or Opportunistic Cynics, the Christian nationalist organizations and groups on this list — as well as a number of prominent individuals within these organizations — represent a threat to democracy as we know it. Best we get a look at who they are.

Christian nationalists abstract

Christian nationalism

For more on Christian nationalism, please see the following topics:

Famous Christian nationalists list

Here are some of the people and organizations involved in — or foundational to — the modern day movement to establish a Christian theocratic government in America (this is a work in progress!):

  • 700 Club — Airing since 1966, the 700 Club is one of the longest-running Christian TV programs in the U.S. The show is produced by the Christian Broadcasting Network, founded by evangelist and one-time presidential candidate (1988) Pat Robertson.
  • Acton Institute — The Acton Institute is a think tank that promotes the integration of free-market economics with conservative Christian theology, advocating for limited government and individual liberty as expressions of religious principles. Critics argue that its focus on deregulation and laissez-faire capitalism often aligns with policies that favor corporate interests over social justice and economic equality, pushing a religiously-infused political agenda.
  • Howard Ahmanson Jr. — American businessman, philanthropist, and Christian conservative activist who has donated millions of dollars to right-wing organizations and the GOP. Ahmanson is the son of the late financier and philanthropist Howard F. Ahmanson Sr., and a supporter of the Intelligent Design movement.
  • Awake 88 — A 2008 initiative sponsored by the Family Research Council (FRC) in which J.C. Church visited 2500 churches in all of Ohio’s 88 counties in an effort to turn the state red in the 2008 elections.
  • Alexander AcostaTrump‘s Secretary of Labor from April 2017 to July 2019 who resigned when new details of his unlawful “sweetheart” plea deal with Jeffrey Epstein came to light. He was known to attend the weekly White House Bible study gatherings led by Dominionist and Evangelical proselytizer Ralph Drollinger.
  • Alex Azar — Trump’s Secretary of Health and Human Services from January 2018 to January 2021, who was also known to attend the weekly White House Bible study gatherings led by Dominionist Ralph Drollinger.
  • Alliance Defending Freedom (ADF) — The ADF is a nonprofit founded in 1994 by James Dobson, Bill Bright, and other Christian leaders to provide legal representation and support to people and organizations facing legal challenges based on their religious beliefs. The ADF was involved in the high-profile Masterpiece Cakeshop case, defending the baker who refused to make a gay wedding cake.
gay wedding cake, by Midjourney
  • Alliance for Religious Liberty — The Alliance for Religious Liberty is a coalition of conservative legal organizations and advocacy groups dedicated to protecting religious freedoms and promoting Christian values in public policy. Critics argue that its efforts often align with Christian nationalist agendas, seeking to integrate specific religious doctrines into legislation and influence governance to reflect conservative Christian beliefs.
  • American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ) — The American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ) is a conservative legal advocacy group founded by televangelist Pat Robertson, closely aligned with Christian nationalist ideologies. The organization aggressively promotes a religiously conservative agenda, frequently engaging in litigation and public policy advocacy to impose its version of Christian values on American law, often targeting issues like abortion rights, LGBTQ+ rights, and the separation of church and state.
  • American College of Pediatricians — ACPeds is a small, socially conservative group of pediatricians founded in 2002 that has been criticized for its support of the discredited “conversion therapy” practice for LGBTQ+ youth and other views that run counter to the group’s stated purpose of promoting healthy and respectful development of children. The group is not recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties or the American Academy of Pediatrics.
  • American Enterprise Institute (AEI) — A conservative think tank based in the United States that conducts research and advocacy on a range of public policy issues. Founded in 1938, the AEI is known for its promotion of conservative social values.
  • American Family Association (AFA) — A non-profit conservative Christian organization based in the United States, founded in 1977. The group has been designated as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, which cites the organization’s history of spreading false and harmful information about LGBTQ+ individuals and promoting intolerance and bigotry.
  • American Family Radio Network (AFR) — A Christian radio network in the U.S.
  • American Heritage Girls (AHG) — The American Heritage Girls (AHG) is a faith-based scouting organization for girls based in the United States. The organization was founded in 1995 and describes itself as “a Christ-centered character and leadership development program for girls 5 to 18 years of age.” It requires all members to agree to a statement of faith that affirms a belief in God and a commitment to Christian values.
  • American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) — Along with CNP, one of two primary right-wing groups with deep funding ties over the past half century to Republican lawmakers and donors & covertly driving “local” and state legislative agenda centrally from a nationally-coordinated source that shrinks from public view and carefully shields its operations from scrutiny.
  • Americans of Faith — A massive church-based get-out-the-vote campaign in 2004 led by conservative Christian activist and Salem Radio founder Edward Atsinger III.
  • America’s Renewal Project — America’s Renewal Project is a conservative Christian initiative that mobilizes pastors and church leaders to engage in political activism and promote biblical values within American society and government. Critics argue that the project aligns with Christian nationalist goals, aiming to influence public policy and elections to reflect conservative Christian doctrines and principles​.
  • America Wake Up — “America Wake Up” was a religious movement that emerged in the United States during the early 21st century, primarily gaining momentum in the late 2010s and early 2020s. The group, which combined elements of evangelical Christianity with apocalyptic and nationalist themes, aimed to rally Americans to restore traditional religious values and preserve the nation’s spiritual and cultural heritage. Its followers believed that America was in a state of moral decline and that God’s favor could only be reclaimed through a mass spiritual awakening. Although “America Wake Up” was never a centralized organization, its adherents often united through social media, small-group meetings, and public rallies. Critics accused the group of promoting intolerance and divisiveness, and its influence waned as mainstream religious and political figures distanced themselves from its more extreme rhetoric.
  • Robert Arnakis — Robert Arnakis was a prominent conservative political operative and trainer in the United States during the early 21st century. As the Director of Domestic and International Programs at the Leadership Institute, he played a crucial role in mentoring and training conservative activists, politicians, and future leaders. Although he maintained a relatively low public profile, Arnakis significantly impacted the conservative movement by shaping the careers of numerous political figures and promoting conservative values through education and training initiatives.
  • Arlington Group — The Arlington Group was a coalition of influential conservative Christian leaders and organizations in the United States, formed in 2002 to facilitate cooperation and strategic coordination among various religious and political factions. By focusing on shared goals such as opposition to same-sex marriage and the promotion of traditional family values, the group aimed to advance a socially conservative agenda on a national level. While the Arlington Group’s influence diminished over time, its efforts significantly impacted American politics and contributed to the ongoing debate surrounding social issues in the country.
  • Larry Arnn — Larry Arnn, the long-serving president of Hillsdale College, has been influential in guiding the institution towards a more conservative and Christian nationalist direction. Under his leadership, Hillsdale has emphasized a curriculum rooted in the traditional values of Western civilization and has increasingly associated with conservative religious and political figures. Arnn’s tenure has undeniably made Hillsdale a central hub for promoting and advancing conservative ideology and Christian nationalist delusions in American education and public discourse.
  • Edward Atsinger III — Edward Atsinger III is an American businessman and broadcasting executive, who co-founded and served as the CEO of Salem Media Group, one of the leading conservative and Christian media companies in the United States. Established in 1986, Salem Media Group operates a vast network of radio stations, digital media platforms, and publishing houses, targeting conservative and faith-based audiences. Under Atsinger’s leadership, the company has played a pivotal role in shaping American conservative and Christian media landscapes, with its platforms serving as influential channels for promoting conservative and religious viewpoints.
conservative talk shows and right-wing radio
  • Marcus Bachmann — Marcus Bachmann is an American clinical therapist and entrepreneur who gained national attention due to his marriage to former Republican Congresswoman and presidential candidate Michele Bachmann. He holds a PhD in clinical psychology and is the founder of Bachmann & Associates, a Christian counseling center in Minnesota that offers therapy services for a wide range of mental health issues. Bachmann has faced criticism for his views on conversion therapy for LGBTQ individuals, which he allegedly practiced at his clinic, although he has denied promoting this controversial treatment.
  • Michele Bachmann — Michele Bachmann is an American politician, lawyer, and former Republican Congresswoman who represented Minnesota’s 6th district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 2007 to 2015. A prominent figure in the Tea Party movement, Bachmann was known for her conservative stances on issues such as limited government, pro-life advocacy, and opposition to same-sex marriage. In 2012, she sought the Republican nomination for the presidency but eventually withdrew from the race, returning to the private sector after completing her congressional tenure.
  • Jim Bakker — Jim Bakker is an American televangelist, entrepreneur, and former minister who became a prominent figure in the 1970s and 1980s as the host of the successful Christian television program “The PTL Club,” alongside his then-wife, Tammy Faye Bakker. Bakker’s ministry took a downturn in the late 1980s when he was embroiled in a series of scandals involving financial fraud and extramarital affairs, ultimately resulting in his conviction and imprisonment. After his release in 1994, Bakker returned to televangelism and has continued his ministry, albeit on a smaller scale, focusing on end-time prophecy and the sale of survival products.
Jim Bakker, by Midjourney
  • Steve Bannon — Steve Bannon is an American political strategist, filmmaker, and media executive who gained national prominence as the executive chairman of Breitbart News and later as the chief strategist for President Donald Trump‘s 2016 campaign and his early White House administration. Through his work at Breitbart and in the Trump campaign, Bannon promoted conservative and nationalist ideologies, often aligning with Christian nationalist values and narratives. Although not solely focused on Christian nationalism and more oriented towards nationalism more broadly, Bannon’s influence in shaping the political landscape and amplifying the voices of the far-right contributed to the resurgence of Christian nationalist sentiments in the United States.
Steve Bannon, by Midjourney
  • Baptist Press — The Baptist Press, established in 1946, is the official news service of the Southern Baptist Convention, the largest Protestant denomination in the United States.
  • George Barna — George Barna is a renowned American pollster, researcher, author, and speaker, best known for his extensive research on religion, culture, and public opinion. In 1984, he founded the Barna Group, a market research and polling firm specializing in studying the religious beliefs and behaviors of Americans, as well as the intersection of faith and culture.
  • Jeff Barke — Dr. Jeff Barke is an American physician, conservative activist, and author, known for his outspoken views on various public health and policy issues. He came out against the majority of the covid-19 public health measures including mask mandates, stay-at-home orders, and vaccines along with pushing unproven treatments.
  • Mari Barke — Mari Barke serves on the Orange County Board of Education, having been first elected in 2018. Married to Dr. Jeff Barke, she shares her husband’s conservative political views.
  • Stephen Barney — Stephen Barney is a conservative philanthropist, American businessman and donor to various conservative organizations, political campaigns, and educational initiatives.
  • David Barton — David Barton is an influential American evangelical Christian author, speaker, and political activist, known for his advocacy of conservative Christian values in politics and education. Born on January 28, 1954, in Texas, Barton is the founder and president of WallBuilders, a national organization known for its revisionist historical claims — including the idea that the First Amendment is not meant to establish freedom of religion.
  • Gary Bauer — Gary Bauer is known for his staunch advocacy of social conservatism and his prominent roles in various right-wing organizations. Born in Kentucky, Bauer served in the Reagan administration, first as the Deputy Under Secretary for Planning and Budget in the Department of Education, then as the Under Secretary of Education and Chief Domestic Policy Advisor. He left the White House in 1989 to become the president of the Family Research Council, a position he held until 1999. Bauer is especially known for his conservative views on issues such as abortion and same-sex marriage. In 2000, he made an unsuccessful bid for the Republican presidential nomination. Since then, he’ has remained active in conservative politics, notably founding’s founded the Campaign for Working Families, a political action committee dedicated to electing conservative candidates to office.
  • Andrew Beck — Brand consultant and member of the Christian nationalist secretive fraternal order, the Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR).
  • Glenn Beck — Glenn Beck is a prominent American conservative political commentator, radio host, television producer, and founder of the news and entertainment network, TheBlaze. He began his career in radio as a DJ, but his career took a turn towards political commentary in the 2000s. Beck hosted the nationally syndicated radio talk show, “The Glenn Beck Program,” and his television show, “Glenn Beck,” which aired on Fox News from 2009 to 2011, was known for its emotionally charged commentary, chalkboard diagrams, and historical analysis. His shows have often been controversial for their provocative content. Beck is recognized for his libertarian-leaning conservatism and his vocal support for the Tea Party movement.
Glenn Beck is shouting on TV, by Midjourney
  • Becket Fund for Religious Liberty — The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty is a legal advocacy group that often aligns with Christian nationalist agendas by championing cases that promote conservative religious values under the guise of defending religious freedom. While it purports to protect all religious traditions, the organization frequently takes on high-profile cases that advance a conservative Christian perspective, challenging laws and policies related to reproductive rights, LGBTQ+ protections, and the separation of church and state, thereby pushing a broader agenda that critics argue undermines secular governance and pluralistic values.
  • David and Jason Benham — David Benham, along with his twin brother Jason, is a prominent figure in American conservative circles, known for his outspoken views on Christianity and social issues. Prior to his involvement in political and social activism, Benham was a professional baseball player, drafted by the Boston Red Sox in 1998. After retiring from baseball, he and his brother co-founded the Benham Companies, a real estate conglomerate. The brothers gained national attention when their planned HGTV show, “Flip It Forward,” was canceled in 2014 due to controversy over their views on homosexuality and abortion. They are known for their strong pro-life stance, their opposition to same-sex marriage, and their misunderstanding of religious freedom.
  • Philip “Flip” Benham — Philip “Flip” Benham is an American evangelical Christian minister and anti-abortion activist, notable for his leadership roles in pro-life organizations. He was born on April 16, 1948, in Hartford, Connecticut. Benham is the father of David and Jason Benham, also known for their conservative activism. Flip Benham was the director of Operation Save America (formerly known as Operation Rescue National), a pro-life group advocating for the criminalization of abortion. The organization has been associated with protests at abortion clinics and other locations. Benham’s activism has often courted controversy, and he has been arrested multiple times during demonstrations. His vocal stances on issues such as abortion and homosexuality reflect his conservative Christian beliefs.
  • Robert J. Billings — Robert J. Billings was a significant figure in the American conservative movement, particularly known for his contributions to the rise of the Christian right in the late 20th century. Born on October 19, 1929, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Billings advocated for Christian education, founding Christian schools and serving as a superintendent in Wisconsin. His involvement in politics began in earnest in the 1970s, when he co-founded the American Association of Christian Schools and later became an influential figure in the Moral Majority, an organization that played a key role in mobilizing conservative Christian voters. Billings served as an advisor to President Ronald Reagan and was an instrumental figure in shaping the political landscape of the Christian right. He passed away on November 3, 1997.
  • Dr. Henry Blackaby — Dr. Henry Blackaby is an influential Christian pastor, author, and speaker, best known for his work “Experiencing God: Knowing and Doing the Will of God,” a study that has sold millions of copies worldwide. Born on July 11, 1935, in British Columbia, Canada, Blackaby served as a pastor in California and Canada before becoming the president of the Canadian Southern Baptist Conference. In 1976, Blackaby started working for the Home Mission Board (now North American Mission Board) of the Southern Baptist Convention. His work in spiritual revival and church leadership has had a profound impact on evangelical Christianity, particularly in the Southern Baptist tradition. His “Experiencing God” study, developed with his son Richard, has been widely used in churches and study groups and is considered a seminal text in contemporary Christian education.
  • Sen Marsha Blackburn (R-TN) — Marsha Blackburn is a prominent figure in American conservative politics, known for her tenure as a U.S. Senator from Tennessee. Born on June 6, 1952, in Laurel, Mississippi, Blackburn attended Mississippi State University, earning a degree in home economics. Her political career began in the Tennessee State Senate, where she served from 1998 to 2002. In 2002, Blackburn was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Tennessee’s 7th congressional district, where she developed a reputation as a staunch conservative, particularly on issues such as healthcare, internet privacy, and fiscal responsibility. In 2018, Blackburn was elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first woman from Tennessee to serve in the upper chamber. Known for her support of President Donald Trump and her opposition to big government, Blackburn has remained a significant figure in the Republican Party and American conservative politics.
Senator Marsha Blackburn from Tennessee, by Midjourney
  • Morton Blackwell — Morton Blackwell is an influential figure in American conservative politics, best known for his role in the development and training of young conservative activists. Born on November 16, 1939, in LaHarpe, Illinois, Blackwell became involved in conservative activism early in life, working on Barry Goldwater‘s 1964 presidential campaign and serving as executive director of the College Republicans. In 1980, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to the position of Special Assistant to the President for Public Liaison, working on youth outreach. Blackwell is perhaps best known as the founder and president of the Leadership Institute, an organization established in 1979 that provides training for conservative activists, particularly college students.
  • Bob Jones University — Bob Jones University (BJU) is a private, non-denominational evangelical university located in Greenville, South Carolina. It was founded in 1927 by Bob Jones Sr., a prominent evangelist and religious leader, with the aim of creating a training center for Christian workers. Throughout its history, BJU has been known for its conservative cultural and religious views. The university requires students to adhere to a strict code of conduct in line with its religious beliefs. Historically, BJU has been at the center of several controversies, notably regarding its policies on racial segregation, which it maintained until 1971, and its ban on interracial dating, which was not lifted until 2000. Despite these controversies, BJU has had a significant influence on conservative Christian education in the United States.
  • Lauren Boebert — US Representative from Colorado who has been closely associated with Christian nationalist principles.
  • Bolthouse Foundation — The Bolthouse Foundation is a private foundation established by the Bolthouse family, who made their fortune in the farming and food production industry, notably through the Bolthouse Farms brand. The foundation’s mission has been to invest in Christian organizations and causes that align with their commitment to spreading the Christian faith and promoting social good. The foundation’s funding has often focused on supporting Christian education, religious activities, and other nonprofit organizations that align with their values.
  • Dick Bott — Dick Bott was an influential figure in American Christian radio broadcasting, known for founding the Bott Radio Network. Born on March 23, 1928, in Kansas City, Missouri, Bott launched the Bott Radio Network in 1962, which grew to become one of the nation’s largest Christian radio networks, featuring Bible teaching, Christian news, and music. Bott’s commitment to broadcasting Christian content led to a network that includes over 100 radio stations across the United States. Bott’s influence extended beyond his radio network, as he served on the boards of numerous Christian organizations and was a strong supporter of Christian education. He passed away on November 6, 2019.
Christian radio, by Midjourney
  • Bott Radio Network — A network of 120 Christian radio stations operating in 14 of the United States, broadcasting Christian talk radio programs.
  • Lt. Gen. William Boykin (ret.) — Lieutenant General William G. “Jerry” Boykin is a retired American Army officer and conservative political commentator known for his Christian views and involvement in special operations. Born on April 19, 1948, in Wilson, North Carolina, Boykin’s military career spanned over 36 years, during which he played key roles in several U.S. military actions, including the Iran hostage rescue attempt and operations in Grenada and Somalia. He was one of the original members of the U.S. Army’s Delta Force and eventually served as its commander. He also served as the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence under President George W. Bush. After retiring from the military, Boykin became an outspoken conservative Christian activist, serving as Executive Vice President of the Family Research Council, a conservative Christian think-tank and lobbying organization. He has drawn controversy for his comments on Islam and other topics.
  • Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation — The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation is one of the largest and most influential conservative grantmaking foundations in the United States. Established in 1942 by Lynde and Harry Bradley, co-founders of the Allen-Bradley Company, a successful Milwaukee-based electronics and industrial automation manufacturer, the foundation began its significant conservative philanthropic activity in the 1980s, after the sale of Allen-Bradley to Rockwell International. It has provided substantial funding to conservative think tanks, advocacy groups, and scholars, with a focus on areas such as limited government, free markets, education, and the traditional family structure. The foundation has had a considerable impact on shaping conservative policy and intellectual discourse in the United States.
  • Bob Branch — Bob Branch is an educator and conservative political figure known for his involvement in Arizona politics. Branch is recognized for his conservative stance on issues such as education, immigration, and the Second Amendment. He ran for the position of Arizona’s Superintendent of Public Instruction in 2018, campaigning on a platform of local control of education, school safety, and curriculum transparency.
gun rights in Arizona and the 2nd Amendment / 2A position
  • Lincoln Brewster — Lincoln Brewster is an American contemporary Christian musician and worship pastor known for his guitar-based songs. Born on July 30, 1971, in Fairbanks, Alaska, Brewster developed a passion for music at a young age, with his mother nurturing his talent. He became a sought-after session guitarist in his early 20s and had the opportunity to work with mainstream artists, including journeyman rocker Steve Perry. However, Brewster felt a spiritual calling to use his musical talents for religious purposes and transitioned to contemporary Christian music. In addition to his music career, Brewster has served as a worship pastor at churches including the Bayside Church in California.
  • Jim Bridenstine — a former U.S. Representative and NASA Administrator. Though not overtly a Christian nationalist, his political stances often align with conservative Christian values. He has advocated for limited government and traditional family structures.
  • Harold O. J. Brown — was a theologian and co-founder of the Christian Action Council. He was instrumental in shaping the Christian right movement, emphasizing the role of Christianity in public life.
  • Pat Buchanan — a political commentator and former presidential candidate. He has often fused conservative Christian beliefs with his political ideology, advocating for a return to traditional American values.
  • Mark Bucher — a lesser-known figure in the Christian nationalist movement. He is an attorney who has been involved in legal cases that aim to advance conservative Christian principles in public policy.
  • Building a Nation — not a person but a concept often invoked by Christian nationalists to emphasize the role of Christianity in the founding and sustaining of the United States.
  • Jonathan Cain — a musician, best known as a member of the band Journey. His connection to Christian nationalism is tenuous but he has expressed strong Christian beliefs.
  • Capitol Hill Prayer Partners — Capitol Hill Prayer Partners is a Christian organization that mobilizes prayer networks to support and intercede for government officials and legislative matters in Washington, D.C. Critics argue that its efforts align with Christian nationalist agendas, seeking to integrate religious influence into political processes and decision-making.
  • Capitol Ministries — an organization that aims to evangelize elected officials. It has been criticized for pushing a Christian nationalist agenda by seeking to influence policy through religious teachings.
  • Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation — this foundation is named after a Hungarian Cardinal who opposed communism and has been adopted as a symbol by some Christian nationalists in their fight against secularism.
  • Ben Carson — a retired neurosurgeon and former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. While not explicitly a Christian nationalist, his conservative views often align with the movement’s principles.
Ben Carson and Donald Trump, by Midjourney
  • CBN University — now known as Regent University, the institution was founded by Pat Robertson. It aims to provide a Christian education and has been influential in training leaders who align with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Center for Arizona Policy — The Center for Arizona Policy (CAP) is a conservative advocacy organization that promotes legislation aligned with traditional Christian values, focusing on issues such as pro-life policies, school choice, and opposition to LGBTQ+ rights. Critics argue that CAP’s agenda often reflects Christian nationalist ideals, aiming to influence public policy to reflect their specific religious beliefs and values.
  • Center for Renewing America — Christian nationalist Russell Vought founded this think tank, which is a pro-Trump organization advocating for policies that reflect Vought’s vision for America. Vought served as Trump’s Director of OMB, and currently serves as the leader of the RNC Platform Committee. He is also a key leader of Project 2025, where according to Paul Dans he leads 30 teams of over 1000 people working to remake the federal government and establish a Christian theocracy in America.
  • A Choice Not an Echo — a political pamphlet by Phyllis Schlafly, published in 1964. It has been influential in conservative circles and is often cited by Christian nationalists as a call to action against liberal ideologies.
  • Spencer Chretien — Former Special Assistant to Trump and currently one of the 3 main leaders of Project 2025, the Christian nationalist plan to remake America according to their extremist vision.
  • Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) — Founded by Pat Robertson, CBN is a television network with a Christian focus. It has been a significant platform for disseminating Christian nationalist views and influencing American politics.
  • Christian Coalition — a political organization founded by Pat Robertson. It aims to mobilize conservative Christians in the U.S. and has been a driving force in the Christian nationalist movement since the 1990s.
  • Christian homeschooling movement — advocates for homeschooling as a way to instill Christian values in children. It has gained traction among Christian nationalists who view public education as secular and morally corrupt.
  • Christian Legal Society — The Christian Legal Society (CLS) is a nationwide association of Christian attorneys, law students, and legal professionals dedicated to integrating faith with the practice of law, advocating for religious freedom, and promoting justice. CLS’s efforts often align with Christian nationalist objectives, aiming to shape public policy and legal standards in accordance with conservative Christian values, thereby influencing the legal landscape to reflect their religious beliefs.
  • Christian Satellite Network — a media outlet that broadcasts Christian content. While not overtly nationalist, it serves as a platform for voices that often align with Christian nationalist views.
  • J. C. Church — a pastor and political activist who has been involved in promoting Christian nationalist ideologies. He advocates for the integration of Christian principles into American governance.
  • Church United — an organization that aims to politically mobilize churches. It has been criticized for promoting a Christian nationalist agenda, particularly in local and state politics.
  • Church Voter Lookup — a tool often used by Christian nationalist groups to identify and mobilize Christian voters. It aims to influence elections in favor of candidates who uphold Christian values.
  • Citizens for Community Values — Citizens for Community Values (CCV) is a conservative advocacy organization that promotes traditional family values, focusing on issues such as opposing LGBTQ+ rights, pornography, and comprehensive sex education in schools. Critics argue that CCV’s agenda aligns with Christian nationalist ideals, seeking to impose a narrow interpretation of Christian morality on public policy and legislation.
  • Claremont Institute — An influential right-wing think tank with fellows who participated in the attempts to overturn the 2020 election, and who have promoted the idea of an American authoritarian “Red Caesar” who might redeem a decadent nation.
  • Tom Coburn — Tom Coburn was a U.S. Senator known for his conservative stances. While not explicitly a Christian nationalist, his political ideology often aligned with the movement’s principles.
  • Mary Colbert — a Christian author and speaker. She is known for her books that blend Christian teachings with conservative political views, making her a voice in the Christian nationalist sphere.
  • Concerned Women for America — a socially conservative Christian women’s activist group. It focuses on issues like abortion and religious freedom and has been influential in promoting Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Conscience and Religious Freedom Division — this division within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services aims to protect religious freedoms in healthcare. It has been praised by Christian nationalists for upholding Christian values in public policy.
  • Conservative Caucus — a political organization that aims to mobilize grassroots conservatives. While not exclusively Christian nationalist, it often aligns with the movement’s goals.
  • Kellyanne Conway — a political strategist best known for her role as counselor to President Donald Trump. She has often defended policies that resonate with Christian nationalist ideologies.
Kellyanne Conway bloody from the fight, by Midjourney
  • Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation — this alliance focuses on environmental stewardship from a Christian perspective. It often opposes mainstream climate science, aligning more closely with the conservative Christian viewpoints of climate change denialism.
  • Council for National Policy (CNP) — a secretive organization that brings together influential conservatives, many of whom are Christian nationalists. It aims to shape public policy in line with conservative Christian values.
  • Culture Impact Teams (CITs) — grassroots groups often found in churches, organized by the Family Research Council (FRC). They aim to influence local politics and culture in line with Christian nationalist principles.
  • Jan Crouch — She was a co-founder of the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN), a major Christian television network. TBN has served as a prominent platform for Christian nationalist voices.
  • Paul Crouch — also a co-founder of TBN and husband to Jan Crouch. Like his wife, he played a significant role in disseminating Christian content that often aligns with nationalist ideologies.
  • Rafael Cruz — Ted Cruz’s father and an American evangelical preacher.
  • Ted Cruz — a U.S. Senator from Texas known for his staunch conservative views. He has been a vocal advocate for integrating Christian values into American governance, making him a key figure in the Christian nationalist movement.
  • Dr. Kenyn M. Cureton — a Baptist minister and Vice President for Church Ministries at the Family Research Council. He is known for advocating the role of Christianity in American public life, aligning with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Robert Lewis Dabney — Robert Lewis Dabney was a 19th-century theologian and Confederate Army chaplain. His writings have been cited by modern Christian nationalists as foundational texts for their movement.
  • The Daily Signal — a news outlet run by The Heritage Foundation. It often publishes articles that resonate with Christian nationalist and conservative viewpoints.
  • Marjorie Dannenfelser — the President of the Susan B. Anthony List, an organization that focuses on electing pro-life candidates. She is a key figure in the Christian nationalist movement.
  • Paul Dans — one of the key leaders of the Christian nationalist Project 2025, and a longtime Heritage Foundation staffer.
  • Jeff Denham — a former U.S. Representative from California. While not overtly a Christian nationalist, his conservative stances often align with the movement’s principles.
  • Betsy DeVos — a former U.S. Secretary of Education known for her advocacy for “school choice” (i.e. allowing parents to use public tax dollars to send their kids to private Christian academies) and Christian education, making her a significant figure in the Christian nationalist movement.
  • Richard DeVos — Richard DeVos was an American entrepreneur and co-founder of Amway. He was a major donor to conservative and Christian causes.
  • James Dobson — the founder of Focus on the Family, an organization that promotes Christian values in American families. He is a key figure in the Christian nationalist movement.
  • Mark Drever — a lesser-known figure in the Christian nationalist movement who has been involved in various Christian organizations.
  • Karen Rudolph Drollinger — Ralph Drollinger’s wife who reportedly left him for another woman.
  • Ralph Drollinger — the founder of Capitol Ministries, an organization that aims to evangelize elected officials and establish Bible study groups for political leaders. He has been criticized for pushing a Christian nationalist agenda, as well as for advocating corporal punishment for children.
  • Dinesh D’Souza — a conservative author and filmmaker. While not explicitly a Christian nationalist, his works often resonate with the movement, particularly in his critiques of liberal ideologies.
  • Alan P. Dye — a Washington, D.C.-based attorney known for representing conservative and Christian organizations. His legal work often intersects with the goals of the Christian nationalist movement.
  • Eagle Forum — Founded by Phyllis Schlafly, the Eagle Forum is a conservative organization that has been instrumental in opposing feminist and liberal policies, often from a Christian nationalist perspective.
  • Stuart Epperson — the co-founder of Salem Media Group, a Christian and conservative media company. He has been influential in disseminating Christian nationalist views through various media platforms.
  • Equal Rights Amendment — a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution aimed at guaranteeing equal legal rights regardless of sex. It has been opposed by some Christian nationalists who argue it undermines traditional family values.
The women behind the Equal Rights Amendment that sent the right-wing shrieking in fear, by Midjourney
  • Frank Erb — serves as a minister to California State Capitol leaders and is associated with Capitol Ministries. He aims to integrate Christian principles into governance, aligning with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Tony Evans — a pastor and author who focuses on building strong Christian families. While not overtly a Christian nationalist, his teachings often align with the movement’s principles.
  • Jerry Falwell — Jerry Falwell was a prominent televangelist and founder of the Moral Majority, an organization that played a key role in the rise of the Christian right and Christian nationalism.
  • Faith and Action — Faith and Action is a conservative Christian advocacy group that aims to influence policymakers by promoting biblical values and religious principles within the public square. Critics argue that the organization’s activities often align with Christian nationalist goals, seeking to integrate specific religious doctrines into public policy and governance, thereby challenging the pillar of separation of church and state.
  • Faith & Freedom Coalition — Organization led by Ralph Reed that aims to mobilize conservative religious voters and has been a significant force in promoting Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in electoral politics.
  • The Family — Also known as The Fellowship, this organization is a Christian association that has been criticized for its secretive nature and influence on American politicians. It is often associated with Christian nationalist agendas.
  • Family Christian Academy (FCA) — a private religious academy offering a “Christ-centered” curriculum and the teaching of a “biblical worldview.”
  • Family Life Radio — Family Life Radio is a Christian radio network broadcasting contemporary Christian music and Christian talk radio programming across the United States.
  • Family Policy Alliance — The Family Policy Alliance is a conservative Christian organization in the United States that advocates for various policy issues from a faith-based perspective. It focuses on issues such as religious freedom, anti-abortion policies, and the promotion of the traditional family structure (aka Strict Father Morality).
  • Family Policy Councils — Family Policy Councils in the United States are typically conservative organizations at the state level that focus on lobbying and advocating for policies they believe support family values. These councils often address issues like gay marriage, parental rights, religious liberty, and anti-abortion initiatives.
  • Family Research Council (FRC) — The FRC is a prominent conservative Christian group that advocates for policies they believe uphold traditional family values. It is influential in right-wing politics, often shaping public debate on social issues.
  • Family Worship Center — Associated with the ministry of televangelist Jimmy Swaggart, the organization reflects his blend of evangelical worship and conservative family values.
  • Fellowship Foundation — Also known as “The Fellowship” or “The Family,” this is a religiously-oriented group that operates the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, D.C. It is known for its influence on American politics, fostering relationships among political, business, and religious leaders.
The National Prayer Breakfast, Donald Trump presiding -- by Midjourney
  • First Liberty Institute — First Liberty Institute is a legal organization dedicated to defending and restoring religious freedoms through litigation, education, and public policy work. Critics say that its activities often align with Christian nationalist goals, seeking to influence public policy and legal precedents to reflect conservative Christian values and challenge the separation of church and state.
  • Nate Fischer — A Texas-based member of the clandestine Christian nationalist fraternal order the Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR).
  • Reverend Wilber Fisk — An influential 19th-century Methodist educator and theologian, remembered for his strong advocacy for Methodist doctrine and education. His work has inspired many current Christian nationalist groups and ideologies.
  • Tami Fitzgerald — Fitzgerald is a contemporary figure known for her conservative activism, particularly in North Carolina, where she has been a prominent voice on issues like gay marriage and gender, reflecting broader right-wing advocacy trends.
  • Florida Family Action — This is an organization that works at the state level in Florida, engaging in grassroots lobbying and electoral involvement to promote conservative values on social issues.
  • Florida Family Action PAC — The political action committee of the Florida Family Action, this group supports candidates and initiatives in Florida that align with its conservative, family-centered policy goals.
  • Florida Family Policy Council — This council operates in Florida, advocating for conservative social policies. It’s part of a network of state-based conservative policy groups with similar aims.
  • Focus on the Family — A well-known evangelical organization based in Colorado Springs, it promotes conservative policies related to family structure and parenting, and is a major producer of Christian-themed media content.
  • Foster Friess — Friess was a prominent conservative donor and philanthropist, who financially supported various Republican candidates and causes aligned with right-wing politics until his death in 2021.
  • Free Congress Foundation — Founded by Paul Weyrich, this right-wing think tank historically has been instrumental in promoting conservative legislative agendas and played a pivotal role in the development of conservative strategies and policies.
  • Lynn Friess — Lynn Friess is the widow of Foster Friess and has continued to be active in philanthropy and conservative causes, supporting various initiatives that align with her and her late husband’s values, particularly in the realms of education, Christian outreach, and family services.
  • Jim Garlow — A pastor and author, Garlow is a notable figure in conservative Christian circles, known for his advocacy on traditional marriage and anti-abortion issues, and has been a key influence in the intersection of faith and politics. He is recognized for his efforts to mobilize evangelical Christians to engage in political processes with the aim of shaping government policies and societal norms according to their interpretation of Christian values. He has been a vocal supporter of traditional marriage, anti-abortion policies, and religious liberty issues, often framing these stances as essential to preserving America’s Christian heritage.
  • Rosemary Schindler Garlow — A speaker and activist, she is married to Jim Garlow, and is also a distant relative of Oskar Schindler. She is involved in Christian ministry work and advocacy, often in conjunction with her husband’s activities.
  • Godspeak Calvary Chapel — Non-denominational church in California that gained attention in conservative media for its defiance of public health orders during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Barry Goldwater — Known as the “father of modern conservatism,” Goldwater was a five-term U.S. Senator from Arizona and the 1964 Republican nominee for President. His libertarian-leaning conservative philosophy laid the foundation for the conservative resurgence in the following decades.
Barry Goldwater running for US President, by Midjourney
  • Peggy Goldwater — As the wife of Barry Goldwater, Peggy Goldwater was a supportive figure in his political career. While less politically active herself, she played a role in the personal side of the conservative movement during her husband’s career.
  • Grace Community Church, Sun Valley — A prominent evangelical church in California, led by Pastor John MacArthur. It is known for its conservative theological stance and has been influential in evangelical Christian circles.
  • Billy Graham — Reverend Billy Graham was one of the most influential Christian evangelists of the 20th century, serving as a spiritual advisor to multiple U.S. presidents and preaching to millions globally, with a message that was generally hard-lined conservative.
  • Franklin Graham — Famed evangelist Billy Graham’s son, Franklin Graham is a vocal supporter of Trump and has been actively involved in promoting his policies. He frequently met with Trump and provided spiritual guidance, reinforcing the administration’s ties with the evangelical community.
  • The Green family — Best known for founding Hobby Lobby, the Green family is prominent in conservative circles for their Christian faith and legal battles over religious freedom and opposition to certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act.
  • Marjorie Taylor Greene — Republican US Representative from Georgia who explicitly identifies as a Christian nationalist.
  • Ken Ham — a young-earth creationist and the founder of Answers in Genesis, the Creation Museum, and the Ark Encounter. Ham is a significant figure in promoting a literal interpretation of the Bible and opposing evolutionary theory, which is often referenced in conservative Christian education debates. In February 2014, Ken Ham debated Bill Nye, a well-known science educator and television personality, on the topic of creationism versus evolution. The event focused on whether creationism is a viable model of origins in today’s modern scientific era, with Ham defending a literal interpretation of the Bible’s creation story and Nye advocating for the scientific evidence supporting evolution and an ancient Earth​.
  • Abraham Hamilton III — host of American Family Radio‘s “Hamilton Corner” who described the 2017 mass shooting in Las Vegas as “Satan’s work” that was “immune to legislation.” He went on to claim that the Democrats were “exploiting” the victims by calling for hearings on gun control.
  • Mark Harris — Mark Harris is an American pastor and political candidate from North Carolina. Harris is known for his involvement in the North Carolina Baptist Convention, where he served as president from 2011 to 2013. He played a key role in the passage of the 2012 Marriage Amendment, which defined marriage as between one man and one woman in North Carolina. Harris has run for the U.S. House of Representatives multiple times, including a controversial 2018 campaign that was marred by allegations of election fraud related to absentee ballots, leading to a call for a new election. Despite this, he is running again for Congress in the 2024 election​. He gained attention for his sermons advocating for women to “submit” to their husbands.
  • Kristan Hawkins — Kristan Hawkins is the president of Students for Life of America (SFLA), a prominent anti-abortion organization. Born in 1984 in Wellsburg, West Virginia, she became involved in the pro-life movement at a young age and continued her activism through college, where she studied political science at Bethany College. Under her leadership since 2006, SFLA has grown significantly, now boasting over 1,400 campus groups across the United States. Hawkins is known for her dynamic public speaking and has been a vocal advocate for anti-abortion policies, participating in numerous debates and media appearances. She also hosts the “Explicitly Pro-Life” podcast, where she discusses issues related to abortion and the pro-life movement. Her efforts have made her a significant figure in contemporary pro-life advocacy, working to mobilize and equip the next generation of anti-abortion leaders.
  • Charles Haywood — A self-described “industrialist” and Chicago-educated attorney who helped to incorporate the secretive patriarchal Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR), and sits on its board.
  • Carl F. H. Henry — a prominent American evangelical theologian and a key figure in the neo-evangelical movement, advocating for evangelical engagement with broader culture while maintaining orthodox Christian theology who played a vital role in shaping evangelical thought in the 20th century. Henry’s influence continues through his foundational role in institutions like Fuller Theological Seminary and Christianity Today magazine.
  • Heritage Academy — Heritage Academy is a private Christian school known for its emphasis on providing education based on Christian principles and traditional academic subjects. Its mandatory American government courework has included the claim that the U.S. Constitution is founded on “biblical principles.”
Christian academies began sprouting up after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling ending segregation in schools
  • Heritage Action — Heritage Action for America is a conservative advocacy organization and the political action sister organization of the Heritage Foundation. It focuses on promoting conservative policies and legislation, and while not exclusively Christian nationalist, its activities often align with Christian nationalist principles, advocating for policies rooted in conservative Christian values.
  • Heritage Foundation — a prominent conservative think tank in Washington, D.C., established in 1973. It focuses on promoting conservative public policies based on principles like free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional values, and strong national defense. The foundation has significantly influenced American politics and policy through research, policy recommendations, and influencing decision-makers, making it a key player in shaping U.S. conservative policy.
  • Eric Heubeck — Eric Heubeck is known for his involvement in conservative political strategy, notably for authoring “The Integration of Theory and Practice: A Program for the New Traditionalist Movement,” which outlines strategies for conservative cultural renewal.
  • Hugh Hewitt — Hugh Hewitt is an American radio talk show host, lawyer, academic, and author, known for his nationally syndicated conservative talk radio show and his contributions as a political commentator.
  • Jack Hibbs — Jack Hibbs is a prominent evangelical pastor and founder of Calvary Chapel Chino Hills in California, known for his teachings and influence in Christian conservative circles.
  • Rob Hilarides
  • The Hillsdale Collegian — The Hillsdale Collegian is the student newspaper of Hillsdale College in Michigan, known for its coverage of campus events and its emphasis on conservative perspectives in higher education.
  • Kay Hiramine — Kay Hiramine has been linked to C. Peter Wagner through his involvement in Christian mission work and associations with the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR), a movement Wagner significantly influenced. Hiramine founded the Humanitarian International Services Group (HISG), which was reportedly part of the NAR’s broader network of organizations engaged in global outreach and humanitarian efforts. This network is known for integrating evangelical Christian teachings with humanitarian aid and development projects.
  • A. A. Hodge — Archibald Alexander Hodge (1823–1886) was an American Presbyterian theologian and principal of Princeton Seminary, recognized for his contributions to theological education and the Presbyterian Church.
  • Mike Huckabee — Mike Huckabee is an American politician, Christian minister, author, and commentator, who served as the 44th governor of Arkansas and unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2008 and 2016.
Mike Huckabee, by Midjourney
  • Sarah Huckabee Sanders — Currently the sitting governor of Arkansas, she is the daughter of Mike Huckabee and the former Press Secretary of the Trump administration.
  • Humanitarian International Services Group (HISG) — HISG is an organization known for its humanitarian efforts with a Christian perspective, often involved in providing aid and support in crisis situations. Their work intertwines humanitarian aid with Christian values, which aligns them with aspects of Christian nationalism.
  • Nelson Bunker Hunt — Nelson Bunker Hunt was an American oil company executive known for his significant involvement in conservative Christian movements. He financially supported various Christian nationalist causes and was a major donor to conservative Christian organizations.
  • International Communion of Evangelical Churches — The International Communion of Evangelical Churches (ICEC) is a network of evangelical Christian churches that emphasizes biblical teachings and fosters global connections among its member congregations. Critics argue that ICEC’s efforts often align with Christian nationalist agendas, aiming to promote conservative Christian values and influence public policy through its expansive network of churches.
  • Institute for Creation Research — The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a Christian research organization that promotes a literal interpretation of the Bible’s creation narrative, conducting research and providing education to support young-Earth creationism. ICR’s efforts align with Christian nationalist objectives, seeking to influence public education and science policy to reflect biblical creationist views, often at the expense of established scientific consensus.
  • Institute on Religion and Democracy — The Institute on Religion and Democracy is a conservative Christian think tank that focuses on promoting their interpretation of Christian ethics within policy and society. They have been influential in advocating for Christian nationalist ideals within the United States.
  • David Jeremiah — David Jeremiah is a prominent Christian pastor and televangelist known for his evangelical teachings. While his ministry primarily focuses on evangelical Christianity, it occasionally intersects with Christian nationalist ideology.
  • Mike Johnson — The Republican Speaker of the House has strong ties to Christian nationalism, a viewpoint that seeks to integrate Christian beliefs and principles into government policies and practices. Johnson’s actions and statements align closely with this ideology. He’s been influenced by prominent figures such as David Barton.
  • Bob Jones Sr. — Bob Jones Sr. was an American evangelist and the founder of Bob Jones University, a private, non-denominational evangelical university. The university and Jones himself have been associated with conservative Christian ideologies, some of which align with Christian nationalism.
  • Bob Jones University — Bob Jones University is a private, non-denominational evangelical Christian university known for its conservative cultural and religious values. Historically, it has been associated with and influential in promoting conservative Christian ideologies, as well as notorious for continuing to support segregation — and remaining a segregated institution — until 1971.
Bob Jones University, one of many religious institutions in the south that remained segregated long after Brown V. Board of Education in defiance
  • Judicial Watch — Judicial Watch is a conservative advocacy group that promotes transparency, accountability, and integrity in government, politics, and the law. Founded in 1994, the organization utilizes Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests and litigation to investigate and expose government corruption and misconduct​.
  • Kingdom Warriors — Kingdom Warriors is a term that can refer to various Christian groups or movements that advocate for applying Christian principles to societal and political life. These groups often align with Christian nationalist ideologies in their efforts to influence culture and politics according to their religious beliefs.
  • KMMJ – KMMJ is a Christian radio station known for broadcasting content that aligns with evangelical Christian values.
  • C. Everett Koop — C. Everett Koop was an American pediatric surgeon and public health administrator, known for serving as the Surgeon General of the United States, and a devout Christian.
  • Skyler Kressin — A tax consultant based in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho who plays a central administrative role in the secret patriarchal Christian order of the Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR).
  • Ku Klux Klan — The Ku Klux Klan is a white supremacist hate group with a long history of violent extremism. Their ideology often misappropriates Christian symbols and rhetoric to promote their racist agenda.
The KKK loved a good cross burning on a Saturday night
  • Beverly LaHaye — Beverly LaHaye is a Christian conservative activist and founder of Concerned Women for America, a group known for promoting Christian conservative policies. Her work often intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for policies based on conservative Christian values.
  • Tim LaHaye — Tim LaHaye was an evangelical Christian minister and author, best known for the “Left Behind” series about the End Times and world-ending apocalypse. His works and ministry often promoted a conservative Christian worldview, aligning at times with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Wayne LaPierre — Wayne LaPierre was the CEO and executive vice president of the National Rifle Association (NRA) for many years. While primarily focused on gun rights advocacy, his influence occasionally intersects with Christian nationalist groups that share common conservative values.
  • Karoline Leavitt — The national press secretary for the Trump 2024 campaign, who has also served on the Presidential Personnel Academy of Project 2025.
  • Bill Lee — Bill Lee, as the Governor of Tennessee, has implemented policies and supported legislation that align with conservative Christian values. His governance reflects aspects of Christian nationalist ideology, emphasizing traditional Christian values in policy-making.
  • Leonard Leo — Leonard Leo is a prominent conservative legal activist, known for his influence in the Federalist Society and the composition of today’s Supreme Court. He plays a significant role in promoting conservative judges, some of whom align with Christian nationalist principles.
  • Mark Levin — Mark Levin is a conservative commentator and radio host, known for his advocacy of conservative policies. While his primary focus is on conservative politics, his viewpoints sometimes resonate with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Liberty Fellowship — Liberty Fellowship is a conservative Christian organization that focuses on equipping believers to defend their faith and influence culture through a biblical worldview. Critics argue that its activities often align with Christian nationalist agendas, promoting the integration of conservative Christian values into public policy and governance.
  • Liberty University — Liberty University is a private evangelical Christian university founded by Jerry Falwell Sr. The university is a major hub for conservative Christian education and activism.
  • LifeWay Research — LifeWay Research is an evangelical Christian research group that provides research and resources for churches. Christian nationalist ideologies guide their work in terms of influencing church and societal policies.
  • Rush Limbaugh — Rush Limbaugh was a conservative radio host and commentator, known for his influential role in conservative media. His advocacy for conservative politics intersected with Christian nationalist ideologies.
Rush Limbaugh on the radio, by Midjourney
  • Barry Loudermilk — Barry Loudermilk is a U.S. Congressman known for his conservative Christian views. His legislative actions and public statements often reflect Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for policies based on conservative Christian principles.
  • John MacArthur — John MacArthur is a prominent evangelical pastor and author, known for his conservative theological views and extreme misogyny. He has been known to preach frequently on the subject of female subordination and “wifely submission” as being ordained by God.
  • Maclellan Foundation — The Maclellan Foundation is a private, family-run foundation based in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Established in 1945, it is one of the oldest Christian foundations in the United States. The foundation focuses on funding initiatives that advance Christian faith and promote biblical values globally. Its key areas of support include evangelism, discipleship, theological education, church planting, and leadership development.
  • Rachel MacNair — Rachel MacNair is known for her work in the pro-life movement, with a focus on consistent life ethics. While her work is primarily in the anti-abortion arena, it sometimes intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies in terms of advocating for policies based on Christian ethics.
  • Danielle Madison — Wife of Ralph Drollinger.
  • March for Life — The March for Life is an annual event advocating against abortion in the United States. While its primary focus is on anti-abortion activism, the event often draws support from Christian nationalist groups, advocating for policies aligned with conservative Christian values.
  • Ed McAteer — Ed McAteer was known as a leading figure in the Religious Right movement and was influential in mobilizing conservative Christians into political activism. His efforts significantly contributed to the alignment of evangelical Christians with conservative and Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • The Moral Majority — The Moral Majority was a prominent American political organization associated with the Christian right, founded by Jerry Falwell in 1979. It played a significant role in mobilizing conservative Christians into political action, promoting policies aligned with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Jeanne Mancini — Jeanne Mancini is known for her role as the President of the March for Life, a major anti-abortion organization in the U.S. Her leadership focuses on advocating for anti-abortion policies, often resonating with Christian nationalist principles.
  • Manhattan Declaration — The Manhattan Declaration is a Christian manifesto issued in 2009, emphasizing the sanctity of life, traditional marriage, and religious freedom. It is supported by various Christian leaders and aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in its advocacy for public policies based on Christian ethics.
  • Rob McCoy — Rob McCoy is a pastor and former city council member known for his conservative Christian views. His public stance often aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing the integration of Christian values in governance and society.
  • Mark Meadows — Mark Meadows is a former U.S. Congressman and White House Chief of Staff for Donald Trump, known for his conservative and Christian nationalist views. He has been influential in promoting policies that align with Christian nationalist ideologies.
Mark Meadows in front of the Capitol, by Midjourney
  • Mark MecklerTea Party activist and co-funder of Convention of States.
  • Janet Mefferd — Janet Mefferd is a conservative Christian radio host and commentator. Her broadcasts often emphasize conservative Christian viewpoints, aligning with Christian nationalist ideologies in discussions on culture and politics.
  • Roy Moore — Roy Moore is a former Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice known for his staunch conservative Christian views. His public and professional life has been marked by advocacy for Christian nationalist principles, particularly in legal and political contexts — as well as by controversy, when he was credibly accused by several women of having pursued a romantic relationship with him when they were teenagers and he was in his 30s.
  • Thomas More Society — The Thomas More Society is a conservative legal organization dedicated to defending religious freedoms, pro-life issues, and traditional family values from a Catholic perspective. Critics argue that the society’s work often aligns with Christian nationalist agendas, aiming to integrate religious doctrines into public policy and challenge laws that support reproductive rights and LGBTQ+ protections.
  • Museum of the Bible — The Museum of the Bible in Washington, D.C., is dedicated to the history, narrative, and impact of the Bible. While it presents as an educational institution, its exhibits often align with conservative Christian perspectives, resonating with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • The Naked Communist — “The Naked Communist” is a book by W. Cleon Skousen, published in 1958, presenting a critique of communism and its perceived threats to Christian and American values. The book has been influential in conservative and Christian nationalist circles, advocating for anti-communist and conservative Christian ideals.
  • Penny Young Nance — Penny Young Nance is the CEO and President of Concerned Women for America, a Christian conservative advocacy group. Her leadership focuses on promoting policies and viewpoints aligned with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • National Center for Constitutional Studies — The National Center for Constitutional Studies is an organization known for promoting a conservative interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Its work often aligns with Christian nationalist principles, advocating for governance and policies based on conservative Christian values.
  • National Christian Foundation — The National Christian Foundation is one of the largest Christian grant-making foundations, supporting a wide range of Christian causes and organizations. Some of its funding goes to groups and initiatives that align with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • National Clergy Council — The National Clergy Council is an interdenominational association of conservative Christian leaders that seeks to influence public policy and promote biblical values within the legislative and executive branches of government. Critics argue that its efforts align with Christian nationalist agendas, aiming to integrate religious doctrines into public policy and challenge First Amendment rights to freedom of religion.
  • National Conservative Student Conference — This conference, organized by the Young America’s Foundation, gathers conservative students from across the U.S. to engage with conservative ideas, including those aligning with Christian nationalist ideologies.
National Conservative Student Conference, by Midjourney
  • National Federation of Republican Women — This organization is dedicated to empowering and mobilizing women in the Republican Party. Its activities sometimes intersect with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in advocating for conservative Christian policies.
  • National Legal Foundation — The National Legal Foundation (NLF) is a conservative Christian legal advocacy group that aims to influence public policy and defend religious liberties from a biblical perspective. Critics argue that the NLF’s activities often align with Christian nationalist objectives, seeking to integrate Christian principles into legislation and public life, thereby challenging the separation of church and state.
  • National Organization for Marriage (NOM) — The National Organization for Marriage (NOM) is an advocacy group that claims to protect and promote traditional marriage between one man and one woman. Founded in 2007, NOM engages in lobbying, education, and political activities to oppose same-sex marriage and support policies that reinforce the traditional family structure.
  • National Pro-Life Religious Council (NPRC) — The National Pro-Life Religious Council (NPRC) is an ecumenical Christian organization that unites various denominations to advocate for pro-life policies and oppose abortion, euthanasia, and other practices they believe undermine the sanctity of life. Critics argue that the NPRC’s efforts often align with Christian nationalist goals, aiming to influence public policy and legislation to reflect conservative Christian values and restrict reproductive rights.
  • National Religious Broadcasters — The National Religious Broadcasters (NRB) is an international association of Christian communicators that advocates for free speech and the inclusion of Christian perspectives in media. Critics argue that the NRB’s efforts to amplify conservative Christian viewpoints often align with Christian nationalist agendas, promoting policies and narratives that integrate religious doctrines into public policy and governance.
  • National Right to Life Committee — The National Right to Life Committee is the oldest and largest national anti-abortion organization in the United States, advocating for pro-life policies. Its advocacy often aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in its approach to legislative and cultural issues.
  • Richard John Neuhaus — Richard John Neuhaus was a prominent Catholic priest and theologian, known for his influence in the realm of religion and public life. His work often intersected with Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for the integration of Christian values into public policy.
  • New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) — A movement within evangelical Christianity that emerged in the late 20th century, emphasizing the restoration of the lost offices of church governance, particularly the roles of apostles and prophets. Proponents believe that contemporary apostles and prophets are essential for advancing God’s kingdom on Earth and that they receive direct revelations from God, guiding the church in spiritual warfare, societal transformation, and revival. The NAR is characterized by its focus on miracles, spiritual warfare, and a dominionist theology that aims to influence all spheres of society, including government, education, and the arts, to establish a Christian order. It is decentralized, with various leaders and ministries across the globe, and has been both influential and controversial within broader Christian circles due to its unconventional beliefs and practices.
  • New Christian Right — The New Christian Right is a politically and socially conservative Christian movement that emerged in the late 20th century. This movement is characterized by its advocacy for Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing the role of Christianity in American public life.
  • Kristi Noem — Kristi Noem, as the Governor of South Dakota, is known for her conservative policies and alignment with Christian nationalist ideologies. Her governance and public statements often reflect a strong emphasis on traditional Christian values.
  • Gary North — Gary North is an economist, historian, and writer known for his advocacy of Christian Reconstructionism, a theological perspective that advocates the adoption of Biblical law in the United States.
  • North Carolina Family Policy Council — The North Carolina Family Policy Council is a conservative Christian organization focused on promoting family values and policies aligned with conservative Christian ethics. Their advocacy often intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing traditional Christian views in public policy.
  • Michael Novak — Michael Novak was a Catholic philosopher, journalist, and diplomat, known for his writings on capitalism, religion, and democracy. His work, blending Christian theology with democratic capitalism, sometimes resonated with Christian nationalist thought.
  • Old Time Gospel Hour — The Old Time Gospel Hour was a Christian radio and television ministry founded by Jerry Falwell Sr. This program was instrumental in spreading evangelical Christian teachings and often intersected with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • John M. Olin — John M. Olin was an industrialist and philanthropist, known for funding conservative causes through the John M. Olin Foundation. His contributions significantly supported academic and political endeavors aligned with conservative and Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Brad Onishi — former Christian nationalist turned critic of the movement.
  • Organicgirl — Brand of organic lettuce ultimately owned by a right-wing billionaire
  • Joel Osteen — Joel Osteen is a prominent televangelist and pastor of Lakewood Church, known for his motivational speaking and prosperity gospel teachings.
  • Pacific Justice Institute — The Pacific Justice Institute (PJI) is a conservative legal defense organization that focuses on defending religious freedoms, parental rights, and other civil liberties from a Christian perspective. Critics argue that PJI’s litigation efforts often align with Christian nationalist objectives, promoting policies and legal outcomes that integrate conservative Christian values into public governance and challenge the First Amendment‘s separation of church and state​.
  • Sarah Palin — Sarah Palin, former Governor of Alaska and Vice Presidential candidate, is known for her conservative Christian views. Her political career and public statements often reflect Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing the integration of conservative Christian values into American politics.
Sarah Palin, patriotic drag queen -- by Midjourney
  • Tom Parker — Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court and 7 Mountains Dominionist who ruled in February of 2024 that IVF embryos are “children,” and their accidental destruction falls under the state’s Wrongful Death of a Minor Act, declaring that the people of Alabama have adopted the “theologically based view of the sanctity of life” and said that “human life cannot be wrongfully destroyed without incurring the wrath of a holy God.”
  • “Pastor Briefings” — Events organized by the Family Research Council (FRC) that are “focused on shaping public policy and informed civic activism.”
  • Mike Pence — Mike Pence, former Vice President of the United States, is known for his conservative Christian beliefs and policies. His political career is characterized by advocacy for policies that align with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Pentecostals — Pentecostalism is a Christian movement known for its emphasis on the Holy Spirit, spiritual gifts, and vibrant worship. While diverse in its expressions, some segments of the Pentecostal movement intersect with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in advocating for the integration of Christian beliefs into public life.
  • Sonny Perdue — Sonny Perdue, former Governor of Georgia and U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, is known for his conservative policies and Christian beliefs. His political career has included support for policies that align with Christian nationalist ideologies. He has held fundraising events for Capitol Ministries, the group led by Christian nationalist Ralph Drollinger.
  • Tony Perkins — Tony Perkins is the president of the Family Research Council, a conservative Christian group known for its advocacy on social and family issues. His leadership and activism are closely aligned with Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for policies based on conservative Christian values.
  • Rick Perry — Rick Perry, former Governor of Texas and U.S. Secretary of Energy, is known for his conservative Christian beliefs and political career reflecting support for policies that align with Christian nationalist ideologies. He is famous for a gaffe during the Republican presidential primary debate in 2011 where he claimed he would abolish 3 federal agencies but could only name 2 of them.
  • Howard Phillips — Howard Phillips was a conservative political activist, known for founding the Constitution Party, which advocates for a government based on biblical principles. His political ideology and activism were closely aligned with Christian nationalist principles.
  • Mike Pompeo — Mike Pompeo, former U.S. Secretary of State and CIA Director, is known for his conservative Christian views. His political career and public statements often reflect Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing the importance of Christian values in American foreign and domestic policy.
Mike Pompeo, former Secretary of State and all around nauseating dude, by Midjourney
  • Art Pope — Art Pope is a businessman and political donor known for his support of conservative causes and candidates in North Carolina and nationally. Pope has been active in the North Carolina House of Representatives and served as the state’s Budget Director under Governor Pat McCrory. He is known for his significant contributions to conservative causes and organizations, including founding the Libertarian Party of North Carolina.
  • POTUS Shield — POTUS Shield is a collection of Charismatic Christian leaders who focus on intercessory prayer and prophecy for the United States government and leadership. It aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in its support for leaders who uphold conservative Christian values.
  • Dennis Prager — Dennis Prager is a conservative radio talk show host and writer known for his religious and conservative viewpoints. His work often resonates with Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for the integration of Judeo-Christian values into American life.
  • Praise Network — The Praise Network is a group of Christian radio stations broadcasting religious content, often including evangelical and conservative Christian teachings. Its programming sometimes aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in promoting a Christian worldview.
  • Pray in Jesus Name Project — The Pray In Jesus Name Project is a conservative Christian advocacy group founded by former Navy chaplain Gordon Klingenschmitt, which focuses on promoting religious freedom and Christian values in government and society. Critics argue that its efforts often align with Christian nationalist goals, pushing for policies that integrate a specific interpretation of Christian doctrine into public law and governance.
  • Tom Price — Tom Price is a former U.S. Representative and Secretary of Health and Human Services, known for his conservative policies. His political career has occasionally intersected with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in the realm of health policy and religious freedom.
  • Erik Prince — Erik Prince, the founder of the private security and paramilitary firm Blackwater, is known for his conservative Christian views and his support for conservative causes. His views and activities sometimes align with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in the context of military and security affairs. He is the brother of Betsy DeVos, Michigan industrialist and Secretary of Education in the Trump administration.
Erik Prince and his Blackwater militia private stooges, by Midjourney
  • Project 2025 — Project 2025, led by Paul Dans and key conservative figures within The Heritage Foundation, sets forth an ambitious conservative vision aimed at fundamentally transforming the role of the federal government.
  • Scott Pruitt — Scott Pruitt, former Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, is known for his conservative Christian beliefs. His tenure at the EPA ended after less than 2 years, when he resigned as a result of a growing mass of corruption scandals and ethical violations.
  • Quiverfull movement — The Quiverfull movement is a Christian ideology advocating for large families and traditional gender roles, viewing children as a blessing from God.
  • Ronald Reagan — Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, was known for incorporating conservative Christian values into his policies and rhetoric. His presidency is often cited as aligning with Christian nationalist ideologies in promoting conservative Christian values in American governance.
  • Ralph Reed — Ralph Reed is the founder of the Faith and Freedom Coalition and was the former executive director of the Christian Coalition. He is a significant figure in Christian nationalist circles, advocating for conservative Christian values in politics.
  • Regent University — Founded in 1977 as CBN University by televangelist Pat Robertson in Virginia Beach, Virginia, Regent University is a private Christian university that stands out for its Christian ideology, pedagogy, and history.
  • Carolyn Richards
  • Road to Majority Conference — The Road to Majority Conference is an annual event hosted by the Faith and Freedom Coalition, aimed at mobilizing conservative Christians in politics. The conference aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, focusing on advancing conservative Christian values in governance.
  • Pat Robertson — Pat Robertson was a televangelist, founder of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), and former presidential candidate. He is a major figure in Christian nationalist circles, known for his advocacy of conservative Christian values in American society and politics.
  • Brooke Rollins — She is a prominent ally in the Christian nationalist-dominated Project 2025 and has been instrumental in planning a conservative agenda for a potential second Trump term.
  • R.J. Rushdoony — Rousas John Rushdoony was a Calvinist theologian and philosopher, known as a foundational figure in the Christian Reconstructionism movement, advocating for applying Biblical law to all aspects of society. His ideology significantly influenced Christian nationalist thought.
  • Karl Rove — Karl Rove, a political consultant and strategist, is known for his role in shaping modern conservative politics, particularly during the presidency of George W. Bush.
  • John Rustin — John Rustin is the president of the North Carolina Family Policy Council, an organization focused on promoting family values from a conservative Christian perspective. He has been involved in advocating for policies that align with traditional Christian beliefs, including opposition to same-sex marriage and support for religious freedom measures. His work often intersects with themes of Christian nationalism, particularly in advocating for the integration of Christian principles in public policy and governance in North Carolina​.
  • SAGE Cons — SAGE Cons (Spiritually Active, Governance Engaged Conservatives) refers to a segment of conservative Christians who are highly engaged in the political process.
  • Salem Media Group / Salem Radio Group — The Salem Radio Group is a leading broadcaster of Christian and conservative content, operating numerous radio stations across the United States. Its programming often aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, promoting conservative Christian viewpoints.
  • Richard Mellon Scaife — Richard Mellon Scaife was an American billionaire and publisher, known for funding conservative causes and publications. His philanthropy significantly influenced the growth of conservative and, at times, Christian nationalist ideologies in American politics.
  • Jeff Sessions — Jeff Sessions, former U.S. Attorney General and Senator, is known for his conservative and often Christian-oriented political stance. His policies and public statements often resonate with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in the areas of immigration and religious liberty.
Jeff Sessions, by Midjourney
  • Francis Schaeffer — Francis Schaeffer was an influential evangelical theologian and philosopher, known for his writings on Christianity and culture. His work laid a foundation for the Christian right and indirectly influenced Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Phyllis Schlafly — Phyllis Schlafly was a conservative activist and author, known for her opposition to the feminist movement and her advocacy for conservative Christian values. She was a key figure in the rise of the Christian right, which intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Alan Sears — Alan Sears is an attorney and founder of the Alliance Defending Freedom, an organization known for its conservative Christian legal advocacy. His work often aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, especially in legal battles over religious freedom and traditional values.
  • Jay Sekulow — Jay Sekulow is Chief Counsel for the American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), known for his legal advocacy on behalf of conservative Christian causes. His work frequently intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies in defending religious liberties and conservative values in the legal sphere.
  • W. Cleon Skousen — W. Cleon Skousen was an American conservative author and lecturer, known for his work on anti-communism and the Constitution. His writings have been influential in conservative and Christian nationalist circles, advocating for a conservative interpretation of American history and governance.
  • Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR) — A secretive, men-only Christian nationalist group in the US with close ties to the Claremont Institute and a membership roster predicated on wealth and power. The group’s ideology is tied to strains of white supremacy and government takeover.
  • SonLife Broadcasting Network (SBN) — SonLife Broadcasting Network is a Christian television network run by evangelist Jimmy Swaggart. Its programming focuses on evangelical Christian content and promoting a conservative Christian worldview.
  • SonLife Radio Network — SonLife Radio Network, part of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, broadcasts Christian programming with a focus on evangelical teachings and music.
Jimmy Swaggart crying on national TV
  • Horatio Robinson Storer — Horatio Robinson Storer was a 19th-century physician known for his campaign against abortion and his contributions to the field of gynecology. His historical role intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies in terms of advocating for conservative Christian morals in medical ethics.
  • Southern Baptist Convention — The southern Baptists split with the northern Baptists in 1845 over the issue of slavery.
  • Southern Presbyterian Church — The Southern Presbyterian Church historically refers to Presbyterian denominations in the American South, known for their conservative theological views. Their historical and modern stances often align with Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing traditional Christian values.
  • Southern Strategy — The Southern Strategy was a Republican Party electoral strategy to increase political support among white voters in the South by appealing to racism against African Americans. While not directly a Christian nationalist strategy, it intersects with certain aspects of Christian nationalist politics in its appeal to traditional values and segregation.
  • Darla St. Martin — Darla St. Martin is a prominent figure in the pro-life movement, known for her leadership roles in the National Right to Life Committee. Her activism aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in advocating for anti-abortion policies based on conservative Christian ethics.
  • Stop ERA — Stop ERA was a political movement led by Phyllis Schlafly, aimed at opposing the Equal Rights Amendment. This movement was aligned with Christian nationalist ideologies, advocating for traditional gender roles and conservative Christian values.
  • Students for Life of America — Students for Life of America is a pro-life organization focused on mobilizing young people against abortion. Their activism often intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies, emphasizing the alignment of conservative Christian values with anti-abortion advocacy.
  • Susan B. Anthony List — The Susan B. Anthony List is a non-profit organization that seeks to reduce and ultimately end abortion in the U.S. by supporting pro-life politicians. Its mission aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in advocating for policies based on conservative Christian ethics.
  • Donnie Swaggart — Donnie Swaggart is an evangelist and pastor, part of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, known for his evangelical teachings.
  • Gabriel Swaggart — Gabriel Swaggart is a pastor and television host, part of the Swaggart family’s evangelical ministry. His work, like that of other family members, often aligns with conservative Christian values, occasionally intersecting with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Jimmy Swaggart — Jimmy Swaggart is a well-known Pentecostal evangelist and founder of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, including the SonLife Broadcasting Network. His ministry, marked by traditional evangelical teachings, sometimes aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in promoting conservative Christian values.
Jimmy Swaggart preaching and televangelizing up a storm, by Midjourney
  • Jimmy Swaggart Bible College (JSBC) — Jimmy Swaggart Bible College is an educational institution part of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, focused on training individuals for ministry work with an evangelical Christian perspective.
  • Jimmy Swaggart Telecast — The Jimmy Swaggart Telecast is a Christian television program led by evangelist Jimmy Swaggart, focusing on evangelical preaching and worship.
  • Bruce Taylor, Jeff Taylor, Steve Taylor, & Taylor Farms
  • Thomas Road Baptist Church — Thomas Road Baptist Church, founded by Jerry Falwell Sr., is a significant megachurch in Lynchburg, Virginia, known for its evangelical Christian teachings. The church has historically been associated with the Christian right and Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • James Henley Thornwell — James Henley Thornwell was a 19th-century Presbyterian preacher and theologian, known for his conservative theological views and defense of slavery. His teachings have been cited in contexts related to Christian nationalist ideologies, especially in the historical context of the American South.
  • Robert Tilton — Robert Tilton is a televangelist known for his prosperity gospel teachings and controversial faith healing practices. His ministry is focused on “individual prosperity.”
  • Traditional Values Coalition — The Traditional Values Coalition (TVC) is a conservative Christian advocacy group that promotes policies aligned with traditional family values, often focusing on opposing LGBTQ+ rights, abortion, and secularism in public institutions. Critics argue that the TVC’s efforts to legislate morality according to its interpretation of Christian doctrine contribute to discrimination and the erosion of the separation between church and state​.
  • United States Council of Catholic Bishops — The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic Church in the United States, providing leadership and guidance on spiritual, moral, and social issues from a Catholic perspective. The organization often takes strong stances on policy issues such as abortion, religious freedom, and marriage, promoting a conservative agenda that critics argue sometimes aligns with Christian nationalist ideals and influences public policy to reflect religious doctrine.
  • “Values Buses” — An organizing tactic of the Family Research Council (FRC) to deliver “voter guides” to churches around the country.
  • Values Voters Summit — The Values Voters Summit is an annual political conference hosted by the Family Research Council, known for gathering conservative Christian activists and politicians. The summit aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, focusing on advancing conservative Christian values in politics.
  • Richard Viguerie — Richard Viguerie was a political figure known for pioneering direct mail fundraising for conservative causes. His work has significantly influenced the conservative movement, including aspects that align with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Russell Vought — Russell Vought, a hard-right Christian nationalist, has played a significant role in shaping policies and plans for a potential second Trump term. As the former director of the Office of Management and Budget and founder of the Center for Renewing America, Vought has been instrumental in developing Project 2025. This plan aims to dismantle the nonpartisan federal government and replace it with a strong president and loyalists who would enforce religious rule in the United States.
  • C. Peter Wagner — C. Peter Wagner (1930-2016) is often referred to as the “godfather” of Dominionism, a term describing a set of theological and political beliefs advocating for Christians to govern and influence all aspects of society, including politics, business, and culture. Wagner played a crucial role in shaping and promoting these ideas, especially through his leadership within the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR), a movement he helped to found.
  • Wagner Institute for Practical Ministry — The Wagner Institute for Practical Ministry, founded by the “godfather of Dominionism” C. Peter Wagner in 1998, is an international network of apostolic training centers focused on equipping Christian leaders for ministry. Unlike traditional seminaries, the institute emphasizes hands-on, practical application of spiritual teachings, aiming to activate and impart spiritual gifts to its students. The curriculum includes training in apostolic leadership, prophetic ministry, healing, and deliverance, with a strong focus on integrating Christian principles into various spheres of society, such as business, government, and media.
  • Wallbuilders — WallBuilders is an organization founded by David Barton that focuses on presenting America’s history from a Christian perspective, emphasizing the role of religion in the nation’s founding and development. It aims to influence contemporary policy and culture by promoting the idea that the United States was founded as a Christian nation and should return to these “roots.”
A big nasty border wall keeping people out, by Midjourney
  • Wall Street Prayer Watch — Wall Street Prayer Watch is a Christian organization that aims to promote prayer and spiritual guidance among financial professionals in New York City. Critics maintain that its activities often align with Christian nationalist goals, seeking to integrate religious practices and principles into the secular environment of the financial sector​.
  • Washington Watch — Daily radio talk show hosted by Tony Perkins, the president of the Family Research Council. Airing every weekday, the show provides a conservative Christian perspective on current events and political issues, particularly those affecting faith, family, and religious freedoms. Perkins frequently interviews members of Congress, prominent pro-family leaders, and other newsmakers, discussing topics such as government policies, cultural trends, and legislative developments that impact Christian values and communities. The show is broadcast on numerous radio stations across the United States and is also available on various streaming platforms.
  • The Watchmen on the Wall — Watchmen on the Wall is an initiative of the Family Research Council that equips pastors and church leaders to engage in political activism and promote biblical values in the public square. Critics argue that the initiative aligns with Christian nationalist goals, seeking to influence public policy and governance to reflect conservative Christian doctrines and principles.
  • Doug Wead — Doug Wead is a conservative commentator and author known for his involvement in presidential politics. His work, while primarily political, sometimes intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in his advocacy for conservative values.
  • Well VersedWell Versed Ministry is an organization founded by Dr. Jim Garlow and Rosemary Schindler Garlow, aimed at bringing biblical principles of governance to government leaders. Established to influence public policy and decision-makers with Christian values, Well Versed operates primarily by organizing Bible studies and providing spiritual support to members of Congress, ambassadors at the United Nations, and other elected officials.
  • Paul Weyrich — Paul Weyrich was a conservative activist and commentator, co-founder of the Heritage Foundation and the Moral Majority. He played a key role in mobilizing the Christian right and influencing Christian nationalist ideologies within American politics.
  • Paula White — Paula White is a televangelist and pastor, known for her association with the prosperity gospel and her role as a spiritual advisor to former President Donald Trump. Her ministry, while primarily focused on individual prosperity and spiritual matters, occasionally intersects with Christian nationalist ideologies.
Paula White, spiritual advisor to Donald Trump, praying with his Cabinet in the White House while he looms over her lecherously, by Midjourney
  • Donald Wildmon — Donald Wildmon is the founder of the American Family Association, a group known for its conservative Christian advocacy. His work aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in promoting conservative Christian values in media and culture.
  • Farris Wilks — Farris Wilks is a businessman and conservative political donor, known for his support of Christian and conservative causes. His philanthropy often aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Dan Wilks — Dan Wilks, alongside his brother Farris, is a businessman and significant donor to conservative and Christian causes. His contributions have influenced the conservative political landscape, occasionally intersecting with Christian nationalist ideologies.
  • Ryan P. Williams — President of the Claremont Institute and a board member of the secretive Christian nationalist order seeking to occupy the US government, the Society for American Civic Renewal (SACR). He leads Claremont’s mission in the direction of what he calls a “cold civil war” designed to replace its currency democratically-elected leadership.
  • Stephen Wolfe — Stephen Wolfe is a scholar and author known for his writings on Christian nationalism. He is most notably the author of the book “The Case for Christian Nationalism,” which presents a detailed argument for integrating Christian values into national governance. Wolfe advocates for a model where a nation’s identity and policies are deeply rooted in Christian principles, suggesting that this approach would lead to a more moral and cohesive society.
  • William Wolfe — A former Trump administration official, Wolfe shares Russell Vought’s (of Project 2025) Christian nationalist views and has advocated for overturning same-sex marriage, ending abortion, and reducing access to contraceptives.
  • World Congress of Families — The World Congress of Families is an international organization that promotes conservative Christian values related to the family structure. It aligns with Christian nationalist ideologies in advocating for policies based on traditional Christian views of family and morality.
  • Scott Yenor — Claremont Institute official and Boise State University professor who is a member of the shadowy Society for American Renewal fraternal order of Christian nationalists.
  • Young America’s Foundation — Young America’s Foundation is a conservative youth organization known for promoting conservative ideas among young people. Its activities often intersect with Christian nationalist ideologies, particularly in advocating for conservative and traditional values in education and public life.
Young America's Foundation of future date rapists, by Midjourney

Learn more:

Christian nationalism terms

Christian nationalism books

What is Dominionism?

3 GOP Cults: Christian Cult, Wealth Cult, White Cult

Read more

George Orwell’s 1984 lexicon is a lingua franca of authoritarianism, fascism, and totalitarianism. Newspeak words have the stamp of boots on pavement, the stench of disinformation, and are most likely to be found in the mouths of Trumpians and the chryons of the OAN Network.

The terse portmanteus are blunt and blocky, like a brutalist architecture vocabulary. Their simplicity indicates appeal to the small-minded masses for easily digested pablum.

What is Newspeak?

Newspeak is a fictional language created by George Orwell for his dystopian novel 1984, published in 1949. The language serves as an essential tool for the oppressive regime, known as The Party, to control and manipulate the population of Oceania. Newspeak is intentionally designed to restrict the range of thought, eliminate words that convey dissent or rebellion, and enforce political orthodoxy. The language accomplishes this by reducing the complexity of Newspeak vocabulary and grammar, condensing words into simplified forms, and eliminating synonyms and antonyms. The Party aims to eliminate the potential for subversive thoughts by ensuring that the language itself lacks the necessary words and expressions to articulate them.

In Orwell’s world, Newspeak works hand in hand with the concept of “doublethink,” which requires individuals to accept contradictory beliefs simultaneously. This manipulation of language and thought is central to maintaining the Party’s power and control over the populace. Newspeak translation is often the exact opposite of the meaning of the words said.

Newspeak’s ultimate goal is to render dissent and rebellion impossible by making the very thoughts of these actions linguistically unexpressable. As a result, Newspeak serves as a chilling representation of how language can be weaponized to restrict personal freedoms, suppress independent thought, and perpetuate an authoritarian regime.

Newspeak rises again

Those boots ring out again, from Belarus to Hungary to the United States. There are book burnings and the defunding of libraries in multiple states. From Ron DeSantis to Trumpian anti-intellectualism to the rampant proliferation of conspiracy theories, It’s a good time to brush up on the brutalism still actively struggling to take hold.

The following is a list of all Newspeak words from 1984.

Newspeak Orwell

Newspeak 1984 Dictionary

Newspeak termDefinition
anteThe prefix that replaces before
artsemArtificial insemination
bbBig Brother
bellyfeelThe blind, enthusiastic acceptance of an idea
blackwhiteTo accept whatever one is told, regardless of the facts. In the novel, it is described as "...to say that black is white when [the Party says so]" and "...to believe that black is white, and more, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary".
crimestopTo rid oneself of unorthodox thoughts that go against Ingsoc's ideology
crimethinkThoughts and concepts that go against Ingsoc, frequently referred to by the standard English “thoughtcrime”, such as liberty, equality, and privacy, and also the criminal act of holding such thoughts
dayorderOrder of the day
depDepartment
doubleplusgoodThe word that replaced Oldspeak words meaning "superlatively good", such as excellent, fabulous, and fantastic
doubleplusungoodThe word that replaced Oldspeak words meaning "superlatively bad", such as terrible and horrible
doublethinkThe act of simultaneously believing two, mutually contradictory ideas
duckspeakAutomatic, vocal support of political orthodoxies
facecrimeA facial expression which reveals that one has committed thoughtcrime
FicdepThe Ministry of Truth's Fiction Department
freeThe absence and the lack of something. "Intellectually free" and "politically free" have been replaced by crimethinkful.
–fulThe suffix for forming an adjective
fullwiseThe word that replaces words such as fully, completely, and totally
goodthinkA synonym for "political orthodoxy" and "a politically orthodox thought" as defined by the Party
goodsexSexual intercourse only for procreation, without any physical pleasure on the part of the woman, and strictly within marriage
goodwiseThe word that replaced well as an adverb
IngsocThe English Socialist Party (i.e. The Party)
joycampLabour camp
malquotedInaccurate representations of the words of Big Brother and of the Party
MiniluvThe Ministry of Love, where the secret police interrogate and torture the enemies of Oceania (torture and brainwashing)
MinipaxThe Ministry of Peace, who wage war for Oceania
MinitrueThe Ministry of Truth, who manufacture consent by way of lies, propaganda, and distorted historical records, while supplying the proles (proletariat) with synthetic culture and entertainment
MiniplentyThe Ministry of Plenty, who keep the population in continual economic hardship (starvation and rationing)
OldspeakStandard English
oldthinkIdeas from the time before the Party's revolution, such as objectivity and rationalism
ownlifeA person's anti-social tendency to enjoy solitude and individualism
plusgoodThe word that replaced Oldspeak words meaning "very good", such as great
plusungoodThe word that replaced "very bad"
PornosecThe pornography production section (Porno sector) of the Ministry of Truth's Fiction Department
prolefeedPopular culture for entertaining Oceania's working class
RecdepThe Ministry of Truth's Records Department, where Winston Smith rewrites historical records so they conform to the Party's agenda
rectifyThe Ministry of Truth's euphemism for manipulating a historical record
refTo refer (to someone or something)
secSector
sexcrimeA sexual immorality, such as fornication, adultery, oral sex, and homosexuality; any sex act that deviates from Party directives to use sex only for procreation
speakwriteA machine that transcribes speech into text
TeledepThe Ministry of Truth's Telecommunications Department
telescreenA two-way television set with which the Party spy upon Oceania's population
thinkpolThe Thought Police, the secret police force of Oceania's government
unpersonAn executed person whose existence is erased from history and memory
upsubAn upwards submission to higher authority
–wiseThe only suffix for forming an adverb

Creation of New Words in Newspeak

One of the most fascinating and insidious aspects of Newspeak is the methodical creation of new words. This process is not only about inventing new terms but also about streamlining and simplifying the language to ensure it serves the purposes of the Party. Here’s how this process works:

1. Compounding Words

In Newspeak, many new words are created by combining existing ones. This technique, known as compounding, helps to streamline communication by reducing longer phrases into single, concise terms. For example:

  • Goodthink: A compound of “good” and “think,” meaning orthodox thought, or thoughts that align with Party doctrine.
  • Oldthink: A combination of “old” and “think,” referring to thoughts that are based on outdated, pre-revolutionary beliefs and values.

By merging words in this manner, Newspeak eliminates the need for descriptive phrases, thereby simplifying language and controlling thought.

2. Prefixes and Suffixes

Newspeak employs prefixes and suffixes to create new words and alter the meanings of existing ones. This method ensures that language remains efficient and devoid of any unnecessary complexity. Some common prefixes and suffixes include:

  • Un-: This prefix is used to form the negative of any word, thereby eliminating the need for antonyms. For example, “unhappy” replaces “sad.”
  • Plus- and Doubleplus-: These prefixes intensify the meaning of words. “Plusgood” means very good, while “doubleplusgood” means excellent or extremely good.
  • -wise: This suffix is used to form adverbs. For instance, “speedwise” means quickly.

Through these prefixes and suffixes, Newspeak ensures that language remains consistent and simplified, reinforcing the Party’s control over thought.

3. Simplification of Grammar

The creation of new words in Newspeak is also characterized by the simplification of grammar. Irregular verbs and noun forms are abolished, making all words conform to a delimited list of regular patterns. For example:

  • Think: In Newspeak, the past tense of “think” would simply be “thinked,” and the past participle would also be “thinked,” eliminating irregular forms like “thought.”
  • Knife: Plural forms are regularized, so “knife” becomes “knifes” instead of “knives.”

This grammatical regularization reduces the cognitive load required to learn and use the language, further limiting the scope for complex or critical thought.

4. Abolition of Synonyms and Antonyms

Newspeak systematically removes synonyms and antonyms to narrow the range of meaning, engendering black and white thinking. Each concept is reduced to a single, unambiguous word, eliminating nuances and shades of meaning:

  • Good: The word “good” stands alone without synonyms like “excellent,” “great,” or “superb.” Intensifiers like “plus-” and “doubleplus-” are used instead.
  • Bad: Instead of having a separate word like “bad,” Newspeak uses “ungood.” This not only simplifies vocabulary but also imposes a binary way of thinking.

By removing synonyms and antonyms, Newspeak reduces the complexity of language, ensuring that only Party-approved ideas can be easily communicated.

5. Creation of Euphemisms

In Newspeak, euphemisms are crafted to mask the true nature of unpleasant or controversial realities, aligning language with Party propaganda. For instance:

  • Joycamp: A euphemism for forced labor camps, designed to make the concept seem more palatable and less threatening.
  • Minipax: Short for the Ministry of Peace, which actually oversees war. The euphemistic name helps to disguise its true function.

These euphemisms help to distort reality, making it easier for the Party to maintain control over the population’s perceptions and beliefs.

Related to Newspeak:

Disinformation Dictionary ↗

Disinformation is a practice with a unique Orwellian lexicon all its own, collated in this disinformation dictionary.

disinformation

Essential thinkers on authoritarian personality theory ↗

The authoritarian personality is characterized by excessive strictness and a propensity to exhibit oppressive behavior towards perceived subordinates.

How did they get this way? Are people born with authoritarian personalities, or is the authoritarian “made” predominately by circumstance?

authoritarians gather for a witch hunt

Pathocracy Definition: Are we in one? ↗

Pathocracy is a relatively lesser-known concept in political science and psychology, which refers to a system of government in which individuals with personality disorders, particularly those who exhibit psychopathic, narcissistic, and similar traits (i.e. the “evil of Cluster B“), hold significant power.

Donald Trump pathocracy, by Midjourney
Read more

The concept of “prebunking” emerges as a proactive strategy in the fight against disinformation, an ever-present challenge in the digital era where information spreads at unprecedented speed and scale. In essence, prebunking involves the preemptive education of the public about the techniques and potential contents of disinformation campaigns before they encounter them. This method seeks not only to forewarn but also to forearm individuals, making them more resilient to the effects of misleading information.

Understanding disinformation

Disinformation, by definition, is false information that is deliberately spread with the intent to deceive or mislead. It’s a subset of misinformation, which encompasses all false information regardless of intent.

In our current “information age,” the rapid dissemination of information through social media, news outlets, and other digital platforms has amplified the reach and impact of disinformation campaigns. These campaigns can have various motives, including political manipulation, financial gain, or social disruption — and at times, all of the above; particularly in the case of information warfare.

The mechanism of prebunking

Prebunking works on the principle of “inoculation theory,” a concept borrowed from virology. Much like a vaccine introduces a weakened form of a virus to stimulate the immune system’s response to it, prebunking introduces individuals to a weakened form of an argument or disinformation tactic, thereby enabling them to recognize and resist such tactics in the future.

The process typically involves several key elements:

  • Exposure to Techniques: Educating people on the common techniques used in disinformation campaigns, such as emotional manipulation, conspiracy theories, fake experts, and misleading statistics.
  • Content Examples: Providing specific examples of disinformation can help individuals recognize similar patterns in future encounters.
  • Critical Thinking: Encouraging critical thinking and healthy skepticism, particularly regarding information sources and their motives. Helping people identify trustworthy media sources and discern credible sources in general.
  • Engagement: Interactive and engaging educational methods, such as games or interactive modules, have been found to be particularly effective in prebunking efforts.

The effectiveness of prebunking

Research into the effectiveness of prebunking is promising. Studies have shown that when individuals are forewarned about specific misleading strategies or the general prevalence of disinformation, they are better able to identify false information and less likely to be influenced by it. Prebunking can also increase resilience against disinformation across various subjects, from health misinformation such as the anti-vaccine movement to political propaganda.

However, the effectiveness of prebunking can vary based on several factors:

  • Timing: For prebunking to be most effective, it needs to occur before exposure to disinformation. Once false beliefs have taken root, they are much harder to correct — due to the backfire effect and other psychological, cognitive, and social factors.
  • Relevance: The prebunking content must be relevant to the audience’s experiences and the types of disinformation they are likely to encounter.
  • Repetition: Like many educational interventions, the effects of prebunking can diminish over time, suggesting that periodic refreshers may be necessary.

Challenges and considerations

While promising, prebunking is not a panacea for the disinformation dilemma. It faces several challenges:

  • Scalability: Effectively deploying prebunking campaigns at scale, particularly in a rapidly changing information environment, is difficult.
  • Targeting: Identifying and reaching the most vulnerable or targeted groups before they encounter disinformation requires sophisticated understanding and resources.
  • Adaptation by Disinformers: As prebunking strategies become more widespread, those who spread disinformation may adapt their tactics to circumvent these defenses.

Moreover, there is the ethical consideration of how to prebunk without inadvertently suppressing legitimate debate or dissent, ensuring that the fight against disinformation does not become a vector for censorship.

The role of technology and media

Given the digital nature of contemporary disinformation campaigns, technology companies and media organizations play a crucial role in prebunking efforts. Algorithms that prioritize transparency, the promotion of factual content, and the demotion of known disinformation sources can aid in prebunking. Media literacy campaigns, undertaken by educational institutions and NGOs, can also equip the public with the tools they need to navigate the information landscape critically.

Prebunking represents a proactive and promising approach to mitigating the effects of disinformation. By educating the public about the tactics used in disinformation campaigns and fostering critical engagement with media, it’s possible to build a more informed and resilient society.

However, the dynamic and complex nature of digital disinformation means that prebunking must be part of a broader strategy that includes technology solutions, regulatory measures, and ongoing research. As we navigate this challenge, the goal remains clear: to cultivate an information ecosystem where truth prevails, and public discourse thrives on accuracy and integrity.

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The Heartland Institute is a conservative and libertarian public policy think tank that was founded in 1984. Based in Arlington Heights, Illinois, its stated mission is to discover, develop, and promote free-market solutions to social and economic problems. However, it is perhaps most widely known for its controversial stance on climate change and its efforts to question the scientific consensus on the matter.

Early years and focus areas

Initially, the Heartland Institute focused on a broad range of issues, including education reform, health care, tax policy, and environmental regulation. It positioned itself as a proponent of free-market policies, arguing that such policies lead to more efficient and effective solutions than those proposed by government intervention. Later, it would begin to pivot towards advocacy around a singular issue: climate change denialism.

Climate change and environmental policy

The Heartland Institute’s engagement with climate change began to intensify in the late 1990s and early 2000s. During this period, the Institute increasingly questioned the prevailing scientific consensus on climate change, which holds that global warming is largely driven by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.

The Institute has been accused of being a key player in the campaign to spread doubt about climate change science — following the disinformation playbook first established by Big Tobacco in the 1950s to fight against public awareness of the lethal dangers of smoking. Critics argue that Heartland has worked to undermine public understanding and acceptance of global warming through various means, including:

  1. Publication of Skeptical Research and Reports: Heartland has funded and published reports and papers that challenge mainstream climate science. Notably, it has produced and promoted its own reports, such as the “NIPCC” (Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change) reports, which purport to review the same scientific evidence as the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) but often arrive at starkly different conclusions.
  2. Conferences and Workshops: The Institute has organized and hosted numerous conferences that have brought together climate change skeptics, scientists, and policymakers. These events have served as platforms for presenting and discussing views that are at odds with the mainstream scientific understanding of climate change.
  3. Public Relations and Media Campaigns: Through press releases, op-eds, and social media, the Heartland Institute has actively worked to disseminate its views on climate change to the wider public. It has also attempted to influence policymakers and educators, at times by distributing educational materials that question the consensus on global warming.

Funding and controversy

The funding sources of the Heartland Institute have been a subject of controversy. The organization has received financial support from various foundations, individuals, and corporations, including those with interests in fossil fuels — including the Koch network and the Joseph Coors Foundation. Critics argue that this funding may influence the Institute’s stance on climate change and its efforts to challenge the scientific consensus.

In 2012, the Heartland Institute faced significant backlash following the leak of internal documents that revealed details about its funding and strategy for challenging climate change science. These documents shed light on the Institute’s plans to develop a K-12 curriculum that would cast doubt on climate science, among other strategies aimed at influencing public opinion and education.

Lies, Incorporated

The Heartland Institute’s role in the climate change debate is a highly polarizing one. Proponents view it as a bastion of free speech and skepticism, vital for challenging what they (ironically) claim to see as the politicization of science. Critics, however, argue that its activities have contributed to misinformation, public confusion, and policy paralysis on one of the most pressing issues facing humanity — as well as playing a role in fomenting a broader shift towards science denialism in American culture.

By questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and promoting “alternative facts,” the Heartland Institute has played a significant role in shaping the public discourse on global warming. Its actions and the broader debate around climate science underscore the complex interplay between science, policy, and public opinion in addressing environmental challenges.

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In this post, we dive deep into the heart of American political tradition by presenting a complete collection of first presidential inaugural address speeches that have shaped the United States from its inception to the present day. Each speech, a time capsule of its era, is summarized up front (with a link to the full text) to highlight the core messages, visions, and promises made by the presidents at the dawn of their administrations during their first (or singular) inaugural address.

Accompanying these summaries, we’ve included visual opportunities to get a sense of the inauguration speeches “at a glance,” via word clouds and histograms. These are generated from the text of the speeches themselves, to offer a uniquely infovisual perspective on the recurring themes, values, and priorities that resonate through America’s history.

One of the earliest Presidential inaugural speeches, as imagined by Midjourney

Understanding our history is not just about recounting events; it’s about connecting with the voices that have guided the nation’s trajectory at each pivotal moment. These speeches are more than formalities; they are declarations of intent, reflections of the societal context, and blueprints for the future, delivered at the crossroads of past achievements and future aspirations.

By exploring these speeches, we not only gain insight into the leadership styles and political climates of each period but also engage with the evolving identity of America itself. We can compare the use of language by different presidents in a way that reflects both shifting trends in culture and geopolitics as well as the character and vision of the leaders themselves.

This collection serves as a vital resource for anyone looking to grasp the essence of American political evolution and the enduring principles that continue to inform its path forward.

George Washington inaugural address (1789)

Washington speech summary

George Washington’s inaugural speech, delivered in New York City on April 30, 1789, reflects his reluctance and humility in accepting the presidency. He expresses deep gratitude for the trust placed in him by his fellow citizens and acknowledges his own perceived inadequacies for the monumental task ahead.

Continue reading Presidential Inaugural Address Mega List
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The concept of cherry-picking refers to the practice of selectively choosing data or facts that support one’s argument while ignoring those that may contradict it. This method is widely recognized not just as a logical fallacy but also as a technique commonly employed in the dissemination of disinformation. Cherry-picking can significantly impact the way information is understood and can influence political ideology, public opinion, and policy making.

Cherry-picking and disinformation

Disinformation, broadly defined, is false or misleading information that is spread deliberately, often to deceive or mislead the public. Cherry-picking plays a crucial role in the creation and propagation of disinformation.

By focusing only on certain pieces of evidence while excluding others, individuals or entities can create a skewed or entirely false narrative. This manipulation of facts is particularly effective because the information presented can be entirely true in isolation, making the deceit harder to detect. In the realm of disinformation, cherry-picking is a tool to shape perceptions, create false equivalencies, and undermine credible sources of information.

The role of cherry-picking in political ideology

Political ideologies are comprehensive sets of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths, or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work. Cherry-picking can significantly influence political ideologies by providing a biased view of facts that aligns with specific beliefs or policies.

This biased information can reinforce existing beliefs, creating echo chambers where individuals are exposed only to viewpoints similar to their own. The practice can deepen political divisions, making it more challenging for individuals with differing viewpoints to find common ground or engage in constructive dialogue.

Counteracting cherry-picking

Identifying and countering cherry-picking requires a critical approach to information consumption and sharing. Here are several strategies:

  1. Diversify Information Sources: One of the most effective ways to recognize cherry-picking is by consuming information from a wide range of sources. This diversity of trustworthy sources helps in comparing different viewpoints and identifying when certain facts are being omitted or overly emphasized.
  2. Fact-Checking and Research: Before accepting or sharing information, it’s essential to verify the facts. Use reputable fact-checking organizations and consult multiple sources to get a fuller picture of the issue at hand.
  3. Critical Thinking: Develop the habit of critically assessing the information you come across. Ask yourself whether the evidence supports the conclusion, what might be missing, and whether the sources are credible.
  4. Educate About Logical Fallacies: Understanding and educating others about logical fallacies, like cherry-picking, can help people recognize when they’re being manipulated. This knowledge can foster healthier public discourse and empower individuals to demand more from their information sources.
  5. Promote Media Literacy: Advocating for media literacy education can equip people with the skills needed to critically evaluate information sources, understand media messages, and recognize bias and manipulation, including cherry-picking.
  6. Encourage Open Dialogue: Encouraging open, respectful dialogue between individuals with differing viewpoints can help combat the effects of cherry-picking. By engaging in conversations that consider multiple perspectives, individuals can bridge the gap between divergent ideologies and find common ground.
  7. Support Transparent Reporting: Advocating for and supporting media outlets that prioritize transparency, accountability, and comprehensive reporting can help reduce the impact of cherry-picking. Encourage media consumers to support organizations that make their sources and methodologies clear.

Cherry-picking is a powerful tool in the dissemination of disinformation and in shaping political ideologies. Its ability to subtly manipulate perceptions makes it a significant challenge to open, informed public discourse.

By promoting critical thinking, media literacy, and the consumption of a diverse range of information, individuals can become more adept at identifying and countering cherry-picked information. The fight against disinformation and the promotion of a well-informed public require vigilance, education, and a commitment to truth and transparency.

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The adrenochrome conspiracy theory is a complex and widely debunked claim that has its roots in various strands of mythology, pseudoscience, disinformation, and misinformation. It’s important to approach this topic with a critical thinking perspective, understanding that these claims are not supported by credible evidence or scientific understanding.

Origin and evolution of the adrenochrome theory

The origin of the adrenochrome theory can be traced back to the mid-20th century, but it gained notable prominence in the context of internet culture and conspiracy circles in the 21st century. Initially, adrenochrome was simply a scientific term referring to a chemical compound produced by the oxidation of adrenaline. However, over time, it became entangled in a web of conspiracy theories.

In fiction, the first notable reference to adrenochrome appears in Aldous Huxley’s 1954 work “The Doors of Perception,” where it’s mentioned in passing as a psychotropic substance. Its more infamous portrayal came with Hunter S. Thompson’s 1971 book “Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas,” where adrenochrome is depicted as a powerful hallucinogen. These fictional representations played a significant role in shaping the later conspiracy narratives around the substance.

The conspiracy theory, explained

The modern adrenochrome conspiracy theory posits that a global elite, often linked to high-profile figures in politics, entertainment, and finance, harvests adrenochrome from human victims, particularly children. According to the theory, this substance is used for its supposed anti-aging properties or as a psychedelic drug.

This theory often intertwines with other conspiracy theories, such as those related to satanic ritual abuse and global cabal elites. It gained significant traction on internet forums and through social media, particularly among groups inclined towards conspiratorial thinking. Adrenochrome theory fundamentally contains antisemitic undertones, given its tight similarity with the ancient blood libel trope — used most famously by the Nazi regime to indoctrinate ordinary Germans into hating the Jews.

Lack of scientific evidence

From a scientific perspective, adrenochrome is a real compound, but its properties are vastly different from what the conspiracy theory claims. It does not have hallucinogenic effects, nor is there any credible evidence to suggest it possesses anti-aging capabilities. The scientific community recognizes adrenochrome as a byproduct of adrenaline oxidation with limited physiological impact on the human body.

Impact and criticism

The adrenochrome conspiracy theory has been widely criticized for its baseless claims and potential to incite violence and harassment. Experts in psychology, sociology, and information science have pointed out the dangers of such unfounded theories, especially in how they can fuel real-world hostility and targeting of individuals or groups.

Furthermore, the theory diverts attention from legitimate issues related to child welfare and exploitation, creating a sensationalist and unfounded narrative that undermines genuine efforts to address these serious problems.

Psychological and social dynamics

Psychologists have explored why people believe in such conspiracy theories. Factors like a desire for understanding in a complex world, a need for control, and a sense of belonging to a group can drive individuals towards these narratives. Social media algorithms and echo chambers further reinforce these beliefs, creating a self-sustaining cycle of misinformation.

Various legal and social actions have been taken to combat the spread of the adrenochrome conspiracy and similar misinformation. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have implemented policies to reduce the spread of conspiracy theories, including adrenochrome-related content. Additionally, educational initiatives aim to improve media literacy and critical thinking skills among the public to better discern fact from fiction.

Ultimately, the adrenochrome conspiracy theory is a baseless narrative that has evolved from obscure references in literature and pseudoscience to a complex web of unfounded claims, intertwined with other conspiracy theories. It lacks any credible scientific support and has been debunked by experts across various fields.

The theory’s prevalence serves as a case study in the dynamics of misinformation and the psychological underpinnings of conspiracy belief systems. Efforts to combat its spread are crucial in maintaining a well-informed and rational public discourse.

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“Source amnesia” is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when an individual can remember information but cannot recall where the information came from. In the context of media and disinformation, source amnesia plays a crucial role in how misinformation spreads and becomes entrenched in people’s beliefs. This overview will delve into the nature of source amnesia, its implications for media consumption, and strategies for addressing it.

Understanding source amnesia

Source amnesia is part of the broader category of memory errors where the content of a memory is dissociated from its source. This dissociation can lead to a situation where individuals accept information as true without remembering or critically evaluating where they learned it. The human brain tends to remember facts or narratives more readily than it does the context or source of those facts, especially if the information aligns with pre-existing beliefs or emotions. This bias can lead to the uncritical acceptance of misinformation if the original source was unreliable but the content is memorable.

Source amnesia in the media landscape

The role of source amnesia in media consumption has become increasingly significant in the digital age. The vast amount of information available online and the speed at which it spreads mean that individuals are often exposed to news, facts, and narratives from myriad sources, many of which might be dubious or outright false. Social media platforms, in particular, exacerbate this problem by presenting information in a context where source credibility is often obscured or secondary to engagement.

Disinformation campaigns deliberately exploit source amnesia. They spread misleading or false information, knowing that once the information is detached from its dubious origins, it is more likely to be believed and shared. This effect is amplified by confirmation bias, where individuals are more likely to remember and agree with information that confirms their pre-existing beliefs, regardless of the source’s credibility.

Implications of source amnesia

The implications of source amnesia in the context of media and disinformation are profound. It can lead to the widespread acceptance of false narratives, undermining public discourse and trust in legitimate information sources. Elections, public health initiatives, and social cohesion can be adversely affected when disinformation is accepted as truth due to source amnesia.

The phenomenon also poses challenges for fact-checkers and educators, as debunking misinformation requires not just presenting the facts but also overcoming the emotional resonance and simplicity of the original, misleading narratives.

Addressing source amnesia

Combating source amnesia and its implications for disinformation requires a multi-pronged approach, focusing on education, media literacy, and critical thinking. Here are some strategies:

  1. Media Literacy Education: Teaching people to critically evaluate sources and the context of the information they consume can help mitigate source amnesia. This includes understanding the bias and reliability of different media outlets, recognizing the hallmarks of credible journalism, and checking multiple sources before accepting information as true.
  2. Critical Thinking Skills: Encouraging critical thinking can help individuals question the information they encounter, making them less likely to accept it uncritically. This involves skepticism about information that aligns too neatly with pre-existing beliefs or seems designed to elicit an emotional response.
  3. Source Citing: Encouraging the practice of citing sources in media reports and social media posts can help readers trace the origin of information. This practice can aid in evaluating the credibility of the information and combat the spread of disinformation.
  4. Digital Platforms’ Responsibility: Social media platforms and search engines play a crucial role in addressing source amnesia by improving algorithms to prioritize reliable sources and by providing clear indicators of source credibility. These platforms can also implement features that encourage users to evaluate the source before sharing information.
  5. Public Awareness Campaigns: Governments and NGOs can run public awareness campaigns highlighting the importance of source evaluation. These campaigns can include guidelines for identifying credible sources and the risks of spreading unverified information.

Source amnesia is a significant challenge in the fight against disinformation, making it easy for false narratives to spread unchecked. By understanding this phenomenon and implementing strategies to address it, society can better safeguard against the corrosive effects of misinformation.

It requires a concerted effort from individuals, educators, media outlets, and digital platforms to ensure that the public remains informed and critical in their consumption of information. This collective action can foster a more informed public, resilient against the pitfalls of source amnesia and the spread of disinformation.

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The backfire effect is a cognitive phenomenon that occurs when individuals are presented with information that contradicts their existing beliefs, leading them not only to reject the challenging information but also to further entrench themselves in their original beliefs.

This effect is counterintuitive, as one might expect that presenting factual information would correct misconceptions. However, due to various psychological mechanisms, the opposite can occur, complicating efforts to counter misinformation, disinformation, and the spread of conspiracy theories.

Origin and mechanism

The term “backfire effect” was popularized by researchers Brendan Nyhan and Jason Reifler, who in 2010 conducted studies demonstrating that corrections to false political information could actually deepen an individual’s commitment to their initial misconception. This effect is thought to stem from a combination of cognitive dissonance (the discomfort experienced when holding two conflicting beliefs) and identity-protective cognition (wherein individuals process information in a way that protects their sense of identity and group belonging).

Relation to media, disinformation, echo chambers, and media bubbles

In the context of media and disinformation, the backfire effect is particularly relevant. The proliferation of digital media platforms has made it easier than ever for individuals to encounter information that contradicts their beliefs — but paradoxically, it has also made it easier for them to insulate themselves in echo chambers and media bubbles—environments where their existing beliefs are constantly reinforced and rarely challenged.

Echo chambers refer to situations where individuals are exposed only to opinions and information that reinforce their existing beliefs, limiting their exposure to diverse perspectives. Media bubbles are similar, often facilitated by algorithms on social media platforms that curate content to match users’ interests and past behaviors, inadvertently reinforcing their existing beliefs and psychological biases.

Disinformation campaigns can exploit these dynamics by deliberately spreading misleading or false information, knowing that it is likely to be uncritically accepted and amplified within certain echo chambers or media bubbles. This can exacerbate the backfire effect, as attempts to correct the misinformation can lead to individuals further entrenching themselves in the false beliefs, especially if those beliefs are tied to their identity or worldview.

How the backfire effect happens

The backfire effect happens through a few key psychological processes:

  1. Cognitive Dissonance: When confronted with evidence that contradicts their beliefs, individuals experience discomfort. To alleviate this discomfort, they often reject the new information in favor of their pre-existing beliefs.
  2. Confirmation Bias: Individuals tend to favor information that confirms their existing beliefs and disregard information that contradicts them. This tendency towards bias can lead them to misinterpret or dismiss corrective information.
  3. Identity Defense: For many, beliefs are tied to their identity and social groups. Challenging these beliefs can feel like a personal attack, leading individuals to double down on their beliefs as a form of identity defense.

Prevention and mitigation

Preventing the backfire effect and its impact on public discourse and belief systems requires a multifaceted approach:

  1. Promote Media Literacy: Educating the public on how to critically evaluate sources and understand the mechanisms behind the spread of misinformation can empower individuals to think critically and assess the information they encounter.
  2. Encourage Exposure to Diverse Viewpoints: Breaking out of media bubbles and echo chambers by intentionally seeking out and engaging with a variety of perspectives can reduce the likelihood of the backfire effect by making conflicting information less threatening and more normal.
  3. Emphasize Shared Values: Framing challenging information in the context of shared values or goals can make it less threatening to an individual’s identity, reducing the defensive reaction.
  4. Use Fact-Checking and Corrections Carefully: Presenting corrections in a way that is non-confrontational and, when possible, aligns with the individual’s worldview or values can make the correction more acceptable. Visual aids and narratives that resonate with the individual’s experiences or beliefs can also be more effective than plain factual corrections.
  5. Foster Open Dialogue: Encouraging open, respectful conversations about contentious issues can help to humanize opposing viewpoints and reduce the instinctive defensive reactions to conflicting information.

The backfire effect presents a significant challenge in the fight against misinformation and disinformation, particularly in the context of digital media. Understanding the psychological underpinnings of this effect is crucial for developing strategies to promote a more informed and less polarized public discourse. By fostering critical thinking, encouraging exposure to diverse viewpoints, and promoting respectful dialogue, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of the backfire effect and create a healthier information ecosystem.

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Election denialism, the refusal to accept credible election outcomes, has significantly impacted U.S. history, especially in recent years. This phenomenon is not entirely new; election denial has roots that stretch back through various periods of American history. However, its prevalence and intensity have surged in the contemporary digital and political landscape, influencing public trust, political discourse, and the very fabric of democracy.

Historical context

Historically, disputes over election outcomes are as old as the U.S. electoral system itself. For instance, the fiercely contested 1800 election between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams resulted in a constitutional amendment (the 12th Amendment) to prevent similar confusion in the future. The 1876 election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden was resolved through the Compromise of 1877, which effectively ended Reconstruction and had profound effects on the Southern United States.

Yet these instances, while contentious, were resolved within the framework of existing legal and political mechanisms, without denying the legitimacy of the electoral process itself. Over time, claims of election fraud would come to be levied against the electoral and political system itself — with dangerous implications for the peaceful transfer of power upon which democracy rests.

Voting box in an election, by Midjourney

The 21st century and digital influence

Fast forward to the 21st century, and election denialism has taken on new dimensions, fueled by the rapid dissemination of disinformation (and misinformation) through digital media and a polarized political climate. The 2000 Presidential election, with its razor-thin margins and weeks of legal battles over Florida’s vote count, tested the country’s faith in the electoral process.

Although the Supreme Court‘s decision in Bush v. Gore was deeply controversial, Al Gore’s concession helped to maintain the American tradition of peaceful transitions of power.

The 2020 Election: A flashpoint

The 2020 election, marked by the COVID-19 pandemic and an unprecedented number of mail-in ballots, became a flashpoint for election denialism. Claims of widespread voter fraud and electoral malfeasance were propagated at the highest levels of government, despite a lack of evidence substantiated by multiple recounts, audits, and legal proceedings across several states.

The refusal to concede by President Trump and the storming of the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021, marked a watershed moment in U.S. history, where election denialism moved from the fringes to the center of political discourse, challenging the norms of democratic transition. Widely referred to as The Big Lie, the baseless claims of election fraud that persist in the right-wing to this day are considered themselves to be a form of election fraud by justice officials, legal analysts, and a host of concerned citizens worried about ongoing attempts to overthrow democracy in the United States.

Implications, public trust, and voter suppression

The implications of this recent surge in election denialism are far-reaching. It has eroded public trust in the electoral system, with polls indicating a significant portion of the American populace doubting the legitimacy of election results. This skepticism is not limited to the national level but has trickled down to local elections, with election officials facing threats and harassment. The spread of misinformation, propaganda, and conspiracy theories about electoral processes and outcomes has become a tool for political mobilization, often exacerbating divisions within the American society.

Moreover, election denialism has prompted legislative responses at the state level, with numerous bills introduced to restrict voting access in the name of election security. These measures have sparked debates about voter suppression and the balance between securing elections and ensuring broad electoral participation. The challenge lies in addressing legitimate concerns about election integrity while avoiding the disenfranchisement of eligible voters.

Calls for reform and strengthening democracy

In response to these challenges, there have been calls for reforms to strengthen the resilience of the U.S. electoral system. These include measures to enhance the security and transparency of the voting process, improve the accuracy of voter rolls, and counter misinformation about elections. There’s also a growing emphasis on civic education to foster a more informed electorate capable of critically evaluating electoral information.

The rise of election denialism in recent years highlights the fragility of democratic norms and the crucial role of trust in the electoral process. While disputes over election outcomes are not new, the scale and impact of recent episodes pose unique challenges to American democracy. Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach, including legal, educational, and technological interventions, to reinforce the foundations of democratic governance and ensure that the will of the people is accurately and fairly represented.

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A “filter bubble” is a concept in the realm of digital publishing, media, and web technology, particularly significant in understanding the dynamics of disinformation and political polarization. At its core, a filter bubble is a state of intellectual isolation that can occur when algorithms selectively guess what information a user would like to see based on past behavior and preferences. This concept is crucial in the digital age, where much of our information comes from the internet and online sources.

Origins and mechanics

The term was popularized by internet activist Eli Pariser around 2011. It describes how personalization algorithms in search engines and social media platforms can isolate users in cultural or ideological bubbles. These algorithms, driven by AI and machine learning, curate content – be it news, search results, or social media posts – based on individual user preferences, search histories, and previous interactions.

filter bubble, by DALL-E 3

The intended purpose is to enhance user experience by providing relevant and tailored content. However, this leads to a situation where users are less likely to encounter information that challenges or broadens their worldview.

Filter bubbles in the context of disinformation

In the sphere of media and information, filter bubbles can exacerbate the spread of disinformation and propaganda. When users are consistently exposed to a certain type of content, especially if it’s sensational or aligns with their pre-existing beliefs, they become more susceptible to misinformation. This effect is compounded on platforms where sensational content is more likely to be shared and become viral, often irrespective of its accuracy.

Disinformation campaigns, aware of these dynamics, often exploit filter bubbles to spread misleading narratives. By tailoring content to specific groups, they can effectively reinforce existing beliefs or sow discord, making it a significant challenge in the fight against fake news and propaganda.

Impact on political beliefs and US politics

The role of filter bubbles in shaping political beliefs is profound, particularly in the polarized landscape of recent US politics. These bubbles create echo chambers where one-sided political views are amplified without exposure to opposing viewpoints. This can intensify partisanship, as individuals within these bubbles are more likely to develop extreme views and less likely to understand or empathize with the other side.

Recent years in the US have seen a stark divide in political beliefs, influenced heavily by the media sources individuals consume. For instance, the right and left wings of the political spectrum often inhabit separate media ecosystems, with their own preferred news sources and social media platforms. This separation contributes to a lack of shared reality, where even basic facts can be subject to dispute, complicating political discourse and decision-making.

Filter bubbles in elections and political campaigns

Political campaigns have increasingly utilized data analytics and targeted advertising to reach potential voters within these filter bubbles. While this can be an effective campaign strategy, it also means that voters receive highly personalized messages that can reinforce their existing beliefs and psychological biases, rather than presenting a diverse range of perspectives.

Breaking out of filter bubbles

Addressing the challenges posed by filter bubbles involves both individual and systemic actions. On the individual level, it requires awareness and a conscious effort to seek out diverse sources of information. On a systemic level, it calls for responsibility from tech companies to modify their algorithms to expose users to a broader range of content and viewpoints.

Filter bubbles play a significant role in the dissemination and reception of information in today’s digital age. Their impact on political beliefs and the democratic process — indeed, on democracy itself — in the United States cannot be overstated. Understanding and mitigating the effects of filter bubbles is crucial in fostering a well-informed public, capable of critical thinking and engaging in healthy democratic discourse.

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If we want to know what’s going on today, we need to understand what happened yesterday.

  • The Federalist Papers — A collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution, offering insight into the ideologies that shaped the foundation of American governance.
  • A People’s History of the United States — Howard Zinn | An alternative take on American history from the perspective of ordinary people rather than political leaders, focusing on the struggles of workers, women, African Americans, and the indigenous populations.
  • The Rise and Fall of American Growth — An in-depth analysis by economist Robert J. Gordon, which argues that the rapid economic growth experienced by the United States from 1870 to 1970 was a unique period unlikely to be repeated, highlighting how innovation affected living standards.
  • Black Reconstruction in America — W. E. B. DuBois | This seminal work challenges the prevailing narrative of the Reconstruction era, arguing that African Americans were active agents in the fight for their rights and the rebuilding of the South following the Civil War.
  • Fraud of the Century — A detailed account of the 1876 U.S. presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden, focusing on the controversial electoral practices and compromises that ultimately led to Hayes’s presidency.
  • The Second Coming of the KKK — A historical exploration of the Ku Klux Klan’s resurgence in the early 20th century, detailing how it expanded beyond the South, influencing national politics and American society.
  • The Robber Barons — This book provides a critical look at the late 19th-century industrialists and financiers known as the Robber Barons, examining their business practices, wealth accumulation, and impacts on American society and economy.

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